Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for C. Difficile Infection in Solid Organ Transplant Recipients

  • End date
    Dec 31, 2023
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    University of Wisconsin, Madison
Updated on 18 October 2022


The objective is to examine the effect of Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) compared with vancomycin for cure of recurrent C. diff infection (CDI) in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients in a randomized, controlled clinical trial.


Clostridium difficile (C.difficile) is a pathogen of major public health importance, especially in individuals with comorbid conditions such as solid organ transplantation (SOT). The incidence and adverse outcomes of CDI are greatly amplified in the setting of SOT, due to healthcare exposure, antibiotic use and immunosuppression, all of which are ubiquitous in SOT recipients. There are currently no effective treatment options to achieve a sustained cure of recurrent CDI and prevent further recurrence in SOT recipients. A novel approach that has recently gained attention is restoration of the CDI impaired gut microbiome by instillation of stool from a healthy donor into the intestine of a CDI patient. This treatment, called Fecal Microbiota Transplantation (FMT) has been found in non-comparative studies to reduce CDI recurrence dramatically with a reported efficacy of over 95%, however its efficacy in SOT recipients has not been studied and cannot be extrapolated from results in the non-SOT population because SOT recipients are a unique study population due to profound immunosuppression, frequent antibiotic use and frequent opportunities for exposure to CDI all of which markedly, repeatedly and persistently disrupt the gut microbiome. Thus, this critical gap in the field needs to be addressed by a trial of FMT in SOT recipients with CDI.

Condition Clostridium Difficile Infection Recurrence
Treatment Oral Vancomycin, FMT enema, FMT enema placebo, Oral Vancomycin placebo, FMT oral capsule, FMT oral placebo
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03617445
SponsorUniversity of Wisconsin, Madison
Last Modified on18 October 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Is willing to provide written informed consent
Is willing to comply with all study procedures and be available for the duration of the study
Can take oral medication
At least 18 years of age
Is a solid organ transplant (SOT) recipient
Has had at recurrent C. difficile infection defined as: positive C. difficile testing in stool and diarrhea (three or more loose stools over 24 hours) during the 180 day period following completion of treatment for prior episode
History of positive IgG test to cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) for subject or donor
Clinical response to 4-14 days of oral antibiotic standard of care treatment for the current episode of CDI. Clinical response is defined as greater than or equal to 25% reduction of diarrhea
Negative urine or serum pregnancy test for women of childbearing potential and agree to use effective form of contraception until 6 weeks post treatment

Exclusion Criteria

Major bowel resection surgery within 90 days of randomization
Active intestinal disease (e.g. Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)
History of total colectomy or bariatric surgery
Known or suspected toxic megacolon and/or small bowel ileus
Presence of colostomy or ileostomy
Taking concomitant antibiotics within 48 hours of Visit 2. Topical antibiotics, and antibiotics for transplant prophylaxis are permitted
Dysphagia; oropharyngeal, S), or patient has evidence of dysphagia when the 'safety test' capsule is administered
Currently receiving medication for treatment of acute rejection and/or develop acute rejection prior to administration of FMT
Active, Severe Gastroparesis
Unwilling to withhold probiotics. Probiotics include supplements, prescriptions, and non-prescriptions. Foods (like yogurt) are not prohibited
Neutropenia, ≤ 500 neutrophils/ml [noted in medical records and resulted within 7 days of Visit 1])
Symptomatic co-infection with another intestinal pathogen as determined by chart review
Concurrent intensive induction chemotherapy, radiation therapy or biological treatment for any active malignancy. Patients on maintenance chemotherapy could be enrolled after consultation with the study Medical Monitor
Any severe food allergy, defined as a history of anaphylaxis, systemic urticarial or angioedema attributed to a food and requiring current avoidance precautions
Expected life expectancy is less than 6 months
Use of investigational drugs, biologics, or devices within 30 days prior to randomization
Women who are pregnant, lactating or planning on becoming pregnant during the study
Not suitable for study participation due to other reasons at the discretion of the investigators
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