Radioembolization of Primary and Secondary Liver Malignancies and The Effect On The Immune System

  • End date
    Jun 1, 2024
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    University of Minnesota
Updated on 16 February 2022
hepatocellular carcinoma


The goal of this study is to understand the immunologic effects radioembolization has on the immune system. This will be done by evaluating the changes on biopsy, peripheral blood monocytes, and cytokines.


This is a single institution non-interventional study designed to evaluate the immune reaction to radioembolization (RE) of primary and secondary malignancies of the liver.

RE has been established as a standard of care treatment for both primary and secondary cancers of the liver. The treatment consists of a mapping, or planning angiogram, followed by a delivery angiogram where the dose of yttrium 90 (y90) is delivered. Data has been published on the immune modification powers of external beam radiation (XRT). However, very little data is available on the ways in which RE modifies the immune system. The goal of this study is to determine changes in the peripheral blood monocytes, cytokines and the treated and untreated liver tumors through sample collection prior to and for 12 weeks after standard of care RE.

The prior to, the RE delivery procedure patients will have a blood draw to evaluate for levels of 11 immunologically relevant cytokines (IL-1, IL-1, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p70, IL-18, TNF, IFN-, Fit ligand 3, and MCP-1). These blood draws will be repeated at 7 days (- 2 days, + 5 days), 4 weeks ( 2 weeks) and 12 weeks ( 2 weeks) after RE.

The patients will also have the infiltration of immune relative cells into treated tumors evaluated. This will be done by the patients undergoing biopsy of the largest tumor to be treated prior to treatment and at 2 weeks (7 days) following RE. If patients have other areas of tumor, which are not included in the initial treatment site, these areas will also be biopsied.

Finally, the change in immunologically important peripheral lymphocytes will be collected. This will be done with a blood draw on the day of, but prior to RE serving as an internal control. Patients will then also have blood draws performed at 7 days (2 days), 4 weeks ( 2 weeks) and 12 weeks ( 2 weeks) after RE.

Condition Hepatocellular Carcinoma, Secondary Malignant Neoplasm of Liver
Treatment Yttrium-90
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03889093
SponsorUniversity of Minnesota
Last Modified on16 February 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Biopsy or image (in the setting of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)) diagnosed hepatic malignancy
Total bilirubin < 2 mg/dL
ECOG status 2
Life expectancy >3 months as documented in the medical record by the enrolling physician
Age >22 years
Lesion >2.0 cm which is amenable to percutaneously biopsied

Exclusion Criteria

Unwilling or unable to attend all study related follow ups
Technetium 99 macro aggregated albumin (MAA) lung shunt fraction >20%
Arterial anatomy which precludes the ability to safely perform RE
INR > 1.8 or platelet count <50,000 which cannot be corrected
Patients who are unable to hold anticoagulation and/or antiplatelet therapy in the periprocedural setting
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