Last updated on July 2019

Metabolites of Tramadol in the Postoperative Surgical Patients


Brief description of study

Tramadol is opioid analgesic widely used to treat moderate to severe pain. It is metabolized by cytochrome CYP2D6 into two major metabolites: pharmacologically active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (M1) and inactive N-desmethyltramadol (M2), respectively. Tramadol kinetics in a population of patients undergoing major abdominal surgical procedures, and in patients with a greater or lesser degree of organic failure, is still not well researched. The investigators will measure plasma concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites after usual tramadol doses in ICU patients after major abdominal surgery. Also analgesic affect and side effect of tramadol will be recorded.

Detailed Study Description

The blood samples for the CYP2D6 gene polymorphism analysis will be taken from all patients included in the study. The patients will be categorized as slow (PM), normal (NM) or ultra-fast metabolizers (UM) of tramadol using analysis of the CYP2D6 phenotype. Standard laboratory findings including red blood cells, urea, creatinine, and cholinesterase will be done before surgery.

The patients will receive 500 mg of tramadol intravenously divided into 5 doses during the first 32 postoperative hours in the ICU. The plasma concentrations of tramadol, O-desmethyltramadol and N-desmethyltramadol will be measured 1, 2 and 4 hours after the first dose, and immediately before the 2nd, 3rd and 5th dose. There will therefore be 6 measurements of tramadol and its metabolites.

The analgesic effect of tramadol will be measured in awake patients with Numeric Rating Scale

  • NRS (0 - without pain, 10 - strong pain) 30 minutes before and 30 minutes after tramadol administration. The NRS value of 3 or less will be considered as adequate analgesia. In case of inadequate analgesia rescue analgesic (morphine) will be used according to the local protocol.

In unconscious patients the analgesic effect of tramadol will be tested by Critical Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT). The CPOT value of less than 2 will be considered as adequate analgesia. In case of inadequate analgesia rescue analgesic (morphine) will be used according to the local protocol. During the first 32 hours side effect of tramadol, such as nausea, vomiting and new respiratory depression will be recorded.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT04004481

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