Effect of an Anti-inflammatory Diet on Patients With Cervical Cancer

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Dec 31, 2022
  • participants needed
    156
  • sponsor
    National Institute of Cancerología
Updated on 10 February 2022
ct scan
cancer
antioxidants
brachytherapy
vitamins
pelvic radiation

Summary

During radiation therapy (RT) to pelvic tumors, the small intestine, colon and rectum are inevitably included in the radiation field and are healthy tissues that suffer damage as an adverse effect. Pelvic radiation disease (PRD) is the group of gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by patients that receive pelvic radiation. Intestinal inflammation, tissue damage, oxidative stress and tumor metabolism lead the patient to a catabolic state associated with an increase in energy demands. Also, the painful abdominal symptoms restrict the patients' food intake, leading the patients that develop PRD to an increased risk to develop protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, all of which affect the patients' quality of life. Studies developed in patients with inflammatory bowel disease have suggested that probiotics may have an anti-inflammatory effect in the intestine. In addition, micronutrients and trace elements provide antioxidant capacity and exert immune-modulating effects during periods of intestinal inflammation. Thus, probiotics and immune-modulating nutrients may provide a means to diminish intestinal inflammation and symptoms associated with PRD. In this project the investigators propose that the nutritional management of cervical cancer patients be based on an anti-inflammatory diet, taking into account the nutritional status, age, comorbidities that the patient may present and symptoms developed during treatment. The nutritional intervention will include food rich in immune-modulating nutrients: omega-3 fatty acids, soluble fiber, antioxidants and polyphenols, and probiotics.

Description

Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in Mexican women, representing 16.9% of the total female population. At the National Cancer Institute of Mexico (Instituto Nacional de Cancerologa), 80% cervical cancer patients arrive at locally advanced stages (IB2-IVA). Standard treatment for these stages is based on concomitant chemo-radiotherapy. During radiation therapy (RT) to pelvic tumors, the small intestine, colon and rectum are inevitably included in the radiation field and are healthy tissues that suffer damage as an adverse effect. Pelvic radiation disease (PRD) is the group of gastrointestinal symptoms experienced by patients that receive pelvic radiation. Acute PRD occurs during the time of treatment in 60 to 80% patients, symptoms include nausea, diarrhea, tenesmus, abdominal pain, urgency, mucositis, anorexia, bleeding and fatigue; these symptoms limit cancer treatment and affect the patients' quality of life. Chronic PRD is a progressive condition and a problem for cervical cancer survivors, symptoms include altered intestinal traffic, altered intestinal motility and nutrient malabsorption. The intestinal immune system plays an important role in the development of PRD and the secondary effects of RT. Intestinal inflammation, tissue damage, oxidative stress and tumor metabolism lead the patient to a catabolic state associated with an increase in energy demands. Also, the painful abdominal symptoms restrict the patients' food intake, leading the patients that develop PRD to an increased risk to develop protein-energy malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies, all of which affect the patients' quality of life. Among some of the nutritional intervention assays for patients with PRD, some have described that a low residue diet, restricted in fat (20-25%), lactose (5g) and fiber (20g), reduces the frequency and severity of diarrhea; however, this dietary intervention does not prevent weight loss or malnutrition in patients. Furthermore, low residue diets limit the beneficial effect of dietary fiber and fatty acids that may aid in the inflammatory response. Likewise, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) develop similar symptoms to PRD. Studies developed in these patients have suggested that probiotics may have an anti-inflammatory effect in the intestine. In addition, micronutrients and trace elements provide antioxidant capacity and exert immune-modulating effects during periods of intestinal inflammation. Thus, probiotics and immune-modulating nutrients may provide a means to diminish intestinal inflammation and symptoms associated with PRD. In this project the investigators propose that the nutritional management of cervical cancer patients be based on an anti-inflammatory diet, taking into account the nutritional status, age, comorbidities that the patient may present and symptoms developed during treatment. The individualized energy requirements and nutrient proportions for patients without comorbidities, and for patients with comorbidities such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and renal dysfunction, will be calculated according to the recommendations derived from the Consensus of Nutrition in patients with cancer treated with chemo-radiotherapy to the abdominopelvic area. Furthermore, the nutritional intervention will include food rich in immune-modulating nutrients: omega-3 fatty acids, soluble fiber, antioxidants and polyphenols, and probiotics. Because the low residue diet is routinely used for patients that receive pelvic radiation in other institutions, the anti-inflammatory nutritional intervention will be compared with the low residue diet.

An open controlled randomized clinical trial will be performed on women with locally advanced cervical cancer. Candidates will be randomly assigned to one of the two dietary interventions. Experimental group will receive an anti-inflammatory diet with an energy intake of 28-31 kcal/kg/day, based on 30-40% fat, 20% protein, and 40-50% carbohydrates, the diet will include foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids, soluble fiber, antioxidants and polyphenols, and probiotics. The control group will receive a low residue diet with 28-91 kcal/kg/day, based on 20% fat, 20% protein, and 60% carbohydrates, with no more than 20g fiber and 5g of lactose. In both groups, before, during and after cancer treatment, a thorough nutritional evaluation will be performed, gastrointestinal toxicity will be assessed, and serum cytokine levels and fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin levels will be determined to establish the local and systemic inflammatory response. The quality of life of patients will also be assessed before and after treatment.

Details
Condition Cervical Cancer, Uterine Cervical Neoplasm, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease, Radiation Toxicity, Diet Modification
Treatment probiotics, omega-3 fatty acids, Antioxidants, Soluble fiber, Lactose restriction, Fiber restriction, Fat restriction
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03994055
SponsorNational Institute of Cancerología
Last Modified on10 February 2022

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Ability to understand the study and provide informed consent
ECOG: 0-2
Willingness to assist to every programed visit, to keep to the dietary intervention and lab tests
Diagnosed with cervical cancer
Clinical stages IB-2-IVA
Candidate to receive concomitant chemo-radiotherapy followed by brachytherapy
Disease measured by CT scan
No previous treatment based on chemo-radiotherapy. Hemoglobina levels >10g/dL
Leucocytes >4000/mm3
Platelets > 100000/mm3
Adequate hepatic function

Exclusion Criteria

Patients under nutritional treatment or supplement
Patients with active uncontrolled infections
Patients under treatment with an experimental drug
Patients with fistula at the moment of diagnosis
Patients with previous malignancy
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