Snacks and Satiety

  • End date
    Dec 31, 2022
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    USDA, Western Human Nutrition Research Center
Updated on 23 March 2022
body mass index
Accepts healthy volunteers


This study is designed to compare two types of snacks (almonds or a cereal-based snack), eaten between meals, on measures of appetite, including appetitive hormones, self-reported feelings of hunger and fullness, and food intake at a buffet meal or in the home environment. The investigators hypothesize that the acute responses of appetitive hormones to a meal challenge protocol will differ between almond and cereal-based snacks based on multivariate models of satiety that will be predictive of ad libitum food intake at a dinner meal as part of the meal challenge protocol. Further, the investigators will estimate if, under free-living conditions, self-selected and self-reported food intake will show appropriate energy compensation for the added calories of the snacks, and determine if one type of snack is superior to the other in this regard.


This study will use a randomized, parallel design that includes an almond snack intervention and a cereal-based snack intervention group. The almond intervention will be roasted, unsalted almonds at a level of 56 grams per day for 4 weeks. The cereal-based intervention will be isocaloric snacks provided in the form of a mixture of dry cereal, pretzels, and bread sticks for 4 weeks. A satiety test protocol will be done at the beginning and the end of the intervention period. Each test day will include measures of satiety responses to two standard meals, two snacks (either almonds or cereal-based snacks), and a dinner buffet. The protocol to evaluate satiety signals include tonic measures that may signal homeostasis to the brain and evaluation of episodic signals that may drive food intake In addition, other modulators of satiety will be tested including evaluation of preferences for palatable foods, self-reports of cravings and satiety using questionnaires, and perceived hunger, fullness, desire to eat.

Condition Eating Behavior, Overweight, Obesity
Treatment Almond snack, Cereal-based snack
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03947281
SponsorUSDA, Western Human Nutrition Research Center
Last Modified on23 March 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Body Mass Index 25 - 39.9 kg/m2

Exclusion Criteria

Women who are post-menopausal or peri-menopausal
BMI < 25 or > 40 kg/m2
Allergies to tree nuts
Using any hormonal contraception including oral contraceptive, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring, contraceptive injection (e.g. Depo-Provera), or contraceptive implant (e.g. Nexplanon/Implanon)
Menstrual cycle lengths < 25 days or > 45 days, or have amenorrhea, eumenorrhea, or polymenorrhea
Pregnant or nursing within the last 6 months, or plan to become pregnant during the trial
Medical diagnoses of chronic diseases including cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, renal disease, cancer, type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease requiring medication, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel disease, or those with recent major surgeries
current medical diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a study center
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact



Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Browse trials for

Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note