Snacks and Satiety

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Dec 31, 2022
  • participants needed
    80
  • sponsor
    USDA, Western Human Nutrition Research Center
Updated on 23 March 2022
body mass index
hunger
Accepts healthy volunteers

Summary

This study is designed to compare two types of snacks (almonds or a cereal-based snack), eaten between meals, on measures of appetite, including appetitive hormones, self-reported feelings of hunger and fullness, and food intake at a buffet meal or in the home environment. The investigators hypothesize that the acute responses of appetitive hormones to a meal challenge protocol will differ between almond and cereal-based snacks based on multivariate models of satiety that will be predictive of ad libitum food intake at a dinner meal as part of the meal challenge protocol. Further, the investigators will estimate if, under free-living conditions, self-selected and self-reported food intake will show appropriate energy compensation for the added calories of the snacks, and determine if one type of snack is superior to the other in this regard.

Description

This study will use a randomized, parallel design that includes an almond snack intervention and a cereal-based snack intervention group. The almond intervention will be roasted, unsalted almonds at a level of 56 grams per day for 4 weeks. The cereal-based intervention will be isocaloric snacks provided in the form of a mixture of dry cereal, pretzels, and bread sticks for 4 weeks. A satiety test protocol will be done at the beginning and the end of the intervention period. Each test day will include measures of satiety responses to two standard meals, two snacks (either almonds or cereal-based snacks), and a dinner buffet. The protocol to evaluate satiety signals include tonic measures that may signal homeostasis to the brain and evaluation of episodic signals that may drive food intake In addition, other modulators of satiety will be tested including evaluation of preferences for palatable foods, self-reports of cravings and satiety using questionnaires, and perceived hunger, fullness, desire to eat.

Details
Condition Eating Behavior, Overweight, Obesity
Treatment Almond snack, Cereal-based snack
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03947281
SponsorUSDA, Western Human Nutrition Research Center
Last Modified on23 March 2022

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Pre-menopausal
Body Mass Index 25 - 39.9 kg/m2

Exclusion Criteria

Women who are post-menopausal or peri-menopausal
BMI < 25 or > 40 kg/m2
Allergies to tree nuts
Using any hormonal contraception including oral contraceptive, contraceptive patch, contraceptive ring, contraceptive injection (e.g. Depo-Provera), or contraceptive implant (e.g. Nexplanon/Implanon)
Menstrual cycle lengths < 25 days or > 45 days, or have amenorrhea, eumenorrhea, or polymenorrhea
Pregnant or nursing within the last 6 months, or plan to become pregnant during the trial
Medical diagnoses of chronic diseases including cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases, renal disease, cancer, type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease requiring medication, inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel disease, or those with recent major surgeries
current medical diagnosis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
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