Last updated on June 2019

Early Valve Surgery Versus Conventional Treatment in Infective Endocarditis Patients With High Risk of Embolism


Brief description of study

Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with an overall in-hospital mortality rate of 15-25% and a high incidence of embolic events (20-50%). Leading causes of mortality are heart failure (HF) resulting from valve dysfunction, and stroke caused by vegetation embolization. The rate of symptomatic embolic events occurring after antibiotic initiation is around 15%. Valve surgery benefit has been clearly demonstrated in patients with periannular complications and moderate to severe HF resulting from acute valve regurgitation. The timing of surgery to prevent embolism is critical since the risk of new embolic event is highest during the first weeks of antibiotic treatment.

The primary objective is to compare clinical outcomes of Early Valve Surgery (as soon as possible within 72 hours of randomization) with those of a conventional management based on current guidelines in patients with native left-sided IE and high risk of embolism.

208 patients (104 patients per arm) will be included in a national multicenter (19 centers) prospective randomized open blinded end-point (PROBE) sequential superiority trial.

Detailed Study Description

Infective endocarditis (IE) is associated with an overall in-hospital mortality rate of 15-25% and a high incidence of embolic events (20-50%). Leading causes of mortality are heart failure (HF) resulting from valve dysfunction, and stroke caused by vegetation embolization. The rate of symptomatic embolic events occurring after antibiotic initiation is around 15%. Valve surgery benefit has been clearly demonstrated in patients with periannular complications and moderate to severe HF resulting from acute valve regurgitation. Indications of valve surgery for prevention of embolic complications are less clearly defined. Potential complications of valve surgery and of implanted permanent prosthetic valve are to be balanced against their potential benefits in terms of prevented embolism and improved survival. The timing of surgery to prevent embolism is critical since the risk of new embolic event is highest during the first weeks of antibiotic treatment. The points in favor of early valve surgery (EVS) in patients with high embolic risk include the following 1) patients with high risk of embolism are identified by transesophageal echocardiography (TOE); 2) advances in surgical management of IE dramatically lowered postoperative mortality; 3) 2015 European ESC IE guidelines state that valve surgery should be performed in IE with vegetation above 10 mm AND an embolic event occurring while patients are receiving antibiotic (grade I/B) and should be considered in IE with vegetation above 30 mm (Grade IIaB ) and may be above 10 mm and severe valve regurgitation.

The primary objective is to compare clinical outcomes of EVS (as soon as possible within 72 hours of randomization) with those of a conventional management based on current 2015 European ESC guidelines in patients with native left-sided IE and high risk of embolism.

The primary assessment criterion is a composite of all-cause death and clinically symptomatic embolic events within 6 weeks from randomization in all included patient.

208 patients (104 patients per arm) will be included in a national multicenter (19 centers) prospective randomized open blinded end-point (PROBE) sequential superiority trial.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT03718052

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Recruitment Status: Open


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