Last updated on April 2019

Six Months Versus 12 Months of Oral Itraconazole Therapy for Management of Treatment na ve Subjects With CPA


Brief description of study

The treatment options majorly consist of medical management with at least 6-month long treatment with antifungal drugs - most significantly the azole groups. Itraconazole is the preferred azole for the treatment of CPA. The duration of treatment with oral itraconazole remains uncertain. In a previous study the use of oral itraconazole for 6-months a favorable overall response was seen in 76% of the subjects. Moreover, about 30%-50% of the subjects have disease relapse that requires prolonged therapy. It is likely that a longer duration of itraconazole would have a higher response rate and thus, lower risk of relapse after discontinuation of therapy. In this randomized controlled trial, we compare the clinical outcomes of six months versus twelve months of itraconazole therapy in treatment nave subjects with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis

Detailed Study Description

Aspergillus is a saprophytic fungus which is present normally in our surroundings and causes a large number of pulmonary diseases spreading through inhalational route. The spectrum of disease caused by aspergillus spp. is wide with the manifestations of the disease being governed primarily by the status of the underlying host immunity, which then determines the nature of the host-aspergillus interaction. Patients with an intact immunity have a more stable and indolent form of disease like aspergilloma whereas with a worsening immune status, the risk of invasive disease increases. Chronic pulmonary aspergillosis (CPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) are two of the commonest pulmonary manifestations seen in non-immunocompromised patients whereas invasive pulmonary aspergillosis being more common in the immunocompromised patients.

Estimates suggest that CPA affects around 3 million people across the globe, which may still be an under estimated number as the disease co exists with other pulmonary co-morbidities which make accurate diagnosis a pitfall. In India the annual incidence of CPA was estimated in 2011 and varied between 27,000-0.17 million cases, with different estimates. Based on the mortality rate for CPA which was estimated to be 15% annually, the 5-year prevalence of CPA was placed at 290,147 cases with 5-year prevalence rate being 24 per 100,000 in the same year. The disease confers significant morbidity and mortality, making it a significant burden for the society as well as the healthcare. Apart from the respiratory symptoms, CPA causes significant constitutional symptoms as well which adds to the misery of the patient. The diagnosis of CPA is based on presence of chronic symptoms, consistent radiology and demonstration of Aspergillus by direct (culture) or indirect (serological) methods. Even though CPA is more of a disease spectrum but overall it is characterized by slowly progressive lung cavitation which may or may not show presence of mycetoma /fungal ball in patients with pre-existing structural lung diseases, even though other patterns have also been identified.

The treatment options majorly consist of medical management with at least 6-month long treatment with antifungal drugs - most significantly the azole groups. Itraconazole is the preferred azole for the treatment of CPA. The duration of treatment with oral itraconazole remains uncertain. In a previous study the use of oral itraconazole for 6-months a favorable overall response was seen in 76% of the subjects. Moreover, about 30%-50% of the subjects have disease relapse that requires prolonged therapy. It is likely that a longer duration of itraconazole would have a higher response rate and thus, lower risk of relapse after discontinuation of therapy. In this randomized controlled trial, we compare the clinical outcomes of six months versus twelve months of itraconazole therapy in treatment nave subjects with chronic pulmonary aspergillosis.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT03920527

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Inderpaul Singh

Chandigarh, India
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Recruitment Status: Open


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