Eltrombopag Added to Standard Immunosuppression in Treatment-Naive Severe Aplastic Anemia

Updated on 22 December 2020
myelodysplastic syndromes
myelodysplastic syndrome (mds)
anemia studies
aplastic anemia



  • Severe aplastic anemia is a rare and serious blood disorder. It happens when the immune system starts to attack the bone marrow cells. This causes the bone marrow to stop making red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells. Standard treatment for this disease is horse-ATG and cyclosporine, which suppress the immune system and stop it from attacking the bone marrow. However, this treatment does not work in all people. Some people still have poor blood cell counts even after treatment.
  • Eltrombopag is a drug designed to mimic a protein in the body called thrombopoietin. It helps the body to make more platelets. It may also cause the body to make more red and white blood cells. Studies have shown that eltrombopag may be useful when added to standard treatment for severe aplastic anemia. It may help improve poor blood cell counts.


  • To test the safety and effectiveness of adding eltrombopag to standard immunosuppressive therapy for severe aplastic anemia.


  • Individuals at least 2 years of age who have severe aplastic anemia that has not yet been treated.


  • Participants will be screened with a physical exam, medical history, and blood tests. Blood and urine samples will be collected.
  • Participants will start treatment with horse-ATG and cyclosporine. Treatment will be given according to the standard of care for the disease.
  • Cohort 1: After 14 days, participants will start taking eltrombopag. They will take eltrombopag for up to 6 months.
  • Cohort 2: After 14 days, participants will start taking eltrombopag. They will take eltrombopag for up to 3 months.
  • Cohort 3 and Extension Cohort: Participants will start taking eltrombopag on Day 1. They will take eltrombopag for up to 6 months.
  • Participants may receive other medications to prevent infections during treatment.
  • Treatment will be monitored with frequent blood tests. Participants will also fill out questionnaires about their symptoms and their quality of life.



Severe aplastic anemia (SAA) is a life-threatening bone marrow failure disorder characterized by pancytopenia and a hypocellular bone marrow. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation offers the opportunity for cure in younger patients, but most are not suitable candidates for transplantation due to advanced age or lack of a histocompatible donor. Comparable long-term survival in SAA is attainable with immunosuppressive treatment with horse anti-thymocyte globulin (h-ATG) and cyclosporine (CsA). However, of those patients treated with h-ATG/CsA, one quarter to one third will not respond, and 30-40% of responders relapse. The majority of the hematologic responses observed following initial h-ATG/CsA are partial, with only a few patients achieving normal blood counts. Furthermore, analysis of our own extensive clinical data suggests that poor blood count responses to a single course of ATG (non-robust responders), even when transfusion-independence is achieved, predicts a worse prognosis than when robust hematologic improvement is achieved (protocol 90-H-0146). The explanation for partial recovery and relapse are not fully understood, but incomplete elimination of auto-reactive T cells and insufficient stem cell reserve are both possible. Furthermore, 10-15% of SAA patients treated with standard immunosuppression will develop an abnormal karyotype in follow-up, with monosomy 7 being most common, which portends progression to myelodysplasia and leukemia. In contrast, malignant clonal evolution is rare in complete responders to immunosuppression. Although horse ATG/CsA represented a major advance in the treatment of SAA, refractoriness, incomplete responses, relapse, and clonal evolution limit the success of this modality. Thus, newer regimens are needed to address these limitations, and provide a better alternative to stem cell transplantation.

One approach to augment the quality of hematologic responses is to improve underlying stem cell function. Previous attempts to improve responses in SAA with hematopoietic cytokines including erythropoietin, G-CSF, and stem cell factor, have failed. Thrombopoietin (TPO) is the principal endogenous regulator of platelet production. In addition, TPO also has stimulatory effects on more primitive multilineage progenitors and stem cells in vitro and in animal models. Eltrombopag (Promacta ), an oral 2nd generation small molecule TPO-agonist, is currently approved for treatment of chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP), chronic hepatitis C-associated thrombocytopenia, and severe aplastic anemia who have had an insufficient response to immunosuppressive therapy. Eltrombopag increases platelets in healthy subjects and in thrombocytopenic patients with chronic ITP and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Our Branch recently completed a pilot study of eltrombopag in refractory SAA. We saw encouraging clinical results in a cohort of patients who have failed on average two prior immunosuppressive regimens (Olnes et al. ASH Annual Meeting Abstracts, San Diego, CA, 2011, oral presentation and N Engl J Med 2012;367:11-9.1). Of the twenty-five SAA patients treated with eltrombopag by mouth for three months, eleven (44%) patients met protocol criteria of clinically meaningful hematologic responses, without significant toxicity. Nine patients demonstrated an improvement in thrombocytopenia (>20k/ L increase or transfusion independence), hemoglobin improved in two patients (>1.5g/dL or achieved transfusion independence, and four patients had a significant response in their neutrophil count. When responders continued the drug beyond three months, the hematologic response to eltrombopag increased; a trilineage response was observed in four patients, and a bilineage response occurred in another four, with median follow-up of 13 months. These results suggest that stem cell depletion, a major component of the pathophysiology of SAA, might be directly addressed by eltrombopag administration. The aim of the current study would be to improve the hematologic response rate and its quality, as well as prevent late complications such as relapse and clonal progression, by addition of eltrombopag to standard immunosuppressive therapy.

This trial will evaluate the safety and efficacy of combining eltrombopag with standard hATG/CSA as first line therapy in patients with SAA.

The primary endpoint will be the rate of complete hematologic response at six months.

Secondary endpoints are relapse, robust hematologic blood count recovery at 3, 6, and 12 months, survival, clonal evolution to myelodysplasia and leukemia, marrow stem cell content and hematological response of relapse patients that re-start treatment.


Condition Bone marrow disorder, Bone marrow disorder, Aplastic Anemia, Aplastic Anemia, Anemia; Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer, Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS), Severe Aplastic Anemia Pediatric Adult
Clinical Study IdentifierTX218202
Last Modified on22 December 2020


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Severe aplastic anemia characterized by Bone marrow cellularity less than 30 percent (excluding lymphocytes)
At least two of the following
Absolute neutrophil count less than 500/microL
Platelet count less than 20,000/microL
Absolute reticulocyte count less than 60,000/microL
Age greater than or equal to 2 years old
Weight greater than 12 kg

Exclusion Criteria

Known diagnosis of Fanconi anemia
Evidence of a clonal disorder on cytogenetics performed within 12 weeks of study entry. Patients with super severe neutropenia (ANC less than 200 /microL) will not be excluded initially if cytogenetics are not available or pending. If evidence of a clonal disorder consistent with myelodysplasia is later identified, the patient will go off study
Prior immunosuppressive therapy with any ATG, alemtuzumab, or high dose cyclophosphamide
SGOT or SGPT >5 times the upper limit of normal
Subjects with known liver cirrhosis in severity that would preclude tolerability of cyclosporine and eltrombopag as evidenced by albumin < 35g/L
Hypersensitivity to eltrombopag or its components
Infection not adequately responding to appropriate therapy
Moribund status or concurrent hepatic, renal, cardiac, neurologic, pulmonary, infectious, or metabolic disease of such severity that it would preclude the patient s ability to tolerate protocol therapy, or that death within 7-10 days is likely
Potential subjects with cancer who are on active chemotherapeutic treatment or who take drugs with hematological effects will not be eligible
Current pregnancy, or unwillingness to take oral contraceptives or use a barrier method of birth control or practice abstinence to refrain from pregnancy if of childbearing potential during the course of this study
Inability to understand the investigational nature of the study or to give informed consent or does not have a legally authorized representative or surrogate that can provide informed consent
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