Impact of a PCT(Procalcitonin) Rapid Test -Based Approach on ATB (Antibiotics) Use in Children With Fever Without Source

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  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Nantes University Hospital
Updated on 25 January 2021


Because a newly available point-of-care test may have real interest especially for children in the Emergency Department (ED) setting, by limiting painful and stressful venipunctures and decreasing the length of stay in the ED, the investigators hypothesize that integrating this new capillary Procalcitonin (PCT) rapid test in the DIAFEVER CPR (Clinical Prediction Rules) could represent a highly valuable diagnostic tool to identify a group with low Invasive Bacterial Infection (IBI) risk and could limit unnecessary exams and antibiotic prescriptions. The aim of this present study is to demonstrate the impact of this new PCT rapid-test-based CPR on antibiotic prescription rate in young children with Fever Without Source (FWS) presenting to the ED and on morbidity and mortality


This prospective multicentric randomized study will include 5000 febrile children aged six days to three years, diagnosed with fever without source, in 26 participating French and Swiss emergency departments, during a 36-month period.

During one period, all children will receive usual care. In a second period, the DIAFEVER algorithm will be applied in half of the clusters, and in the remaining clusters, children will still receive usual care.

Then in the last period of one year, all centers will apply the new PCT-based algorithm.

At day 15 after the first consultation, data concerning death, intensive care unit admission, disease-specific complications, diagnosis of bacterial infections and proportion of antibiotic treatments will be assessed by questioning parents by use of an online electronic case report form or a phone call. The endpoints will be compared between the two groups by using a mixed logistic regression model adjusted on clustering of participants within centers and period within centers.

To perform complementary studies, a biocollection will be proposed to parents when blood tests will be indicated.

Condition Fever Without Source
Treatment DIAFEVER algorithm
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03607162
SponsorNantes University Hospital
Last Modified on25 January 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Febrile children aged 6 days to <36 months old presenting to an ED at their initial visit with an acute illness for a maximum of 8 days and diagnosed with a FWS defined as body temperature (measured at home or the ED) > 38C and a physical examination by a physician without source
Oral non-opposition will be requested from one of the parents or caregivers of the patient
No current antibiotic treatment or within the 48 hours before the ED presentation
Parental affiliation with an appropriate health insurance system
Parents speaking French

Exclusion Criteria

A clear source of fever identified after a careful inspection of medical history and a physical examination
No fever on consultation or previously subjectively assessed by parents without use of a thermometer
Refusal of the parents to participate
Child 36 months or < 6 days old (ie, early-onset neonatal infection)
Ongoing ABT treatment or within the 48 hours before ED presentation
Children with FWS who revisited the ED after their initial visit
Participation with another interventional study involving human subjects or being in the exclusion period at the end of a previous study involving human subjects
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