Programmed Ventricular Stimulation to Risk Stratify for Early Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Implantation to Prevent Tachyarrhythmias Following Acute Myocardial Infarction (PROTECT-ICD)

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Jun 30, 2025
  • participants needed
    1058
  • sponsor
    Western Sydney Local Health District
Updated on 23 January 2021
Investigator
Pramesh Kovoor
Primary Contact
Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine (1.2 mi away) Contact
+35 other location

Summary

The PROTECT-ICD trial is a physician-led, multi-centre randomised controlled trial targeting prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients who have poor cardiac function following a myocardial infarct (MI). The trial aims to assess the role of electrophysiology study (EPS) in guiding implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation, in patients early following MI (first 40 days). The secondary aim is to assess the utility of cardiac MRI (CMR) in analysing cardiac function and viability as well as predicting inducible and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmia when performed early post MI.

Following a MI patients are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). The risk is highest in the first 40 days; however, current guidelines exclude patients from receiving an ICD during this time. This limitation is based largely on a single study, The Defibrillator in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (DINAMIT), which failed to demonstrate a benefit of early ICD implantation. However, this study was underpowered and used non-invasive tests to identify patients at high risk. EPS identifies patients with the substrate for re-entrant tachyarrhythmia, and has been found in multiple studies to predict patients at risk of SCD. Contrast-enhanced CMR is a non-invasive test without radiation exposure which can be used to assess left ventricular function. In addition, it provides information on myocardial viability, scar size and tissue heterogeneity. It has an emerging role as a predictor of mortality and spontaneous ventricular arrhythmia in patients with a previous MI.

A total of 1,058 patients who are at high risk of SCD based on poor cardiac function (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 40%) following a ST-elevation or non-STE myocardial infarct will be enrolled in the trial. Patients will be randomised 1:1 to either the intervention or control arm.

In the intervention arm all patients undergo early EPS. Patients with a positive study (inducible ventricular tachycardia cycle length 200ms) receive an ICD, while patients with a negative study (inducible ventricular fibrillation or no inducible VT) are discharged without an ICD, regardless of the LVEF.

In the control arm patients are treated according to standard local practice. This involves early discharge and repeat assessment of cardiac function after 40 days or after 90 days following revascularisation (PCI or CABG). ICD implantation after 40 days according to current guidelines (LVEF30%, or 35% with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II/III symptoms) could be considered, if part of local standard practice, however the ICD is not funded by the trial.

A proportion of trial patients from both the intervention and control arms at >48 hours following MI will undergo CMR to enable correlation with (1) inducible VT at EPS and (2) SCD and non-fatal arrhythmia on follow up. It will be used to simultaneously assess left ventricular function, ventricular strain, myocardial infarction size, and peri-infarction injury. The size of the infarct core, infarct gray zone (as a measure of tissue heterogeneity) and total infarct size will be quantified for each patient.

All patients will be followed for 2 years with a combined primary endpoint of non-fatal arrhythmia and SCD. Non-fatal arrhythmia includes resuscitated cardiac arrest, sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) in participants without an ICD. Secondary endpoints will include all-cause mortality, non-sudden cardiovascular death, non-fatal repeat MI, heart failure and inappropriate ICD denial. Secondary endpoints for CMR correlation will include (1) the presence or absence of inducible VT at EP study, and (2) combined endpoint of appropriate ICD activation or SCD at follow up.

It is anticipated that the intervention arm will reduce the primary endpoint as a result of prevention of a) early sudden cardiac deaths/cardiac arrest, and b) sudden cardiac death/cardiac arrest in patients with a LVEF of 31-40%. It is expected that the 2-year primary endpoint rate will be reduced from 6.7% in the control arm to 2.8% in the intervention arm with a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 68%. A two-group chi-squared test with a 0.05 two-sided significance level will have 80% power to detect the difference between a Group 1 proportion of 0.028 experiencing the primary endpoint and a Group 2 proportion of 0.067 experiencing the primary endpoint when the sample size in each group is 470. Assuming 1% crossover and 10% loss to follow up the required sample size is 1,058 (n=529 patients per arm). To test the hypothesis that tissue heterogeneity at CMR predicts both inducible and spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias will require a sample size of 400 patients to undergo CMR.

It is anticipated that the use of EPS will select a group of patients who will benefit from an ICD soon after a MI. This has the potential to change clinical guidelines and save a large number of lives.

Details
Condition Sudden Cardiac Death
Treatment Standard Care, Electrophysiology study (EPS), Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03588286
SponsorWestern Sydney Local Health District
Last Modified on23 January 2021

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

-40 days (inclusive) following a myocardial infarct
Impaired left ventricular systolic function (LVEF40% or at least moderately impaired)

Exclusion Criteria

Age <18 or >85
Pregnancy
Nursing home resident dependent on one or more activities of daily living
Significant non-cardiac co-morbidity with high likelihood of death within 1 year (this would include any metastatic malignancy, or other terminal disease)
Significant psychiatric illnesses that may be aggravated by device implantation or that may preclude regular follow up
Intravenous drug abuse (ongoing)
Unresolved infection associated with risk for hematogenous seeding
Pre-existing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)
Secondary prevention indication for an ICD (i.e. sustained ventricular arrhythmias occurring more than 48 hours after qualifying myocardial infarction (patients with ventricular arrhythmias occurring 48 hours of myocardial infarction, or with non-sustained ventricular tachycardia at any time, are not excluded))
On the heart transplant list
Recurrent unstable angina despite revascularisation (defined as ongoing chest pain or ischemic symptoms at rest or with minimal exertion despite adequate treatment with anti-anginal medications)
Congestive heart failure New York Heart Association class IV, defined as shortness of breath at rest, which is refractory to medical treatment (not responding to treatment) NOTE: patients who meet exclusion based on (11) or (12) can be reviewed again in 2-3 days and if symptoms have resolved or treatment performed can be re-considered for inclusion
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