Ultrasound Characterization of Ovarian Follicle Dynamics During Weight Loss

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Jun 16, 2023
  • participants needed
    100
  • sponsor
    Cornell University
Updated on 16 October 2022
diabetes
insulin
hormonal contraception
regular menstrual cycles
multivitamins
reproductive hormones
polycystic ovary syndrome
Accepts healthy volunteers

Summary

The objective of this study is to explore the effects of weight loss on body composition, metabolic status, reproductive hormones, and ovarian follicle development in obese women with regular menstrual cycles versus obese women with irregular menstrual cycles and/or polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Description

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine condition that impacts one in ten women of reproductive age worldwide. It is characterized by a collection of signs and symptoms, including: (1) oligo- or anovulation, (2) hyperandrogenism, and (3) polycystic ovarian morphology. Because obesity worsens the reproductive and metabolic features of the condition, lifestyle intervention aimed at weight loss is recommended as the first-line therapy in overweight / obese patients. Many studies have shown that modest weight loss (5-10%) can improve symptomology in women with PCOS. Yet, the mechanism whereby weight loss might stimulate ovulation or restore menstrual cyclicity remains unclear.

Hence, the goal of this study is to explore the effects of weight loss on body composition, metabolic status, reproductive hormones, and ovarian follicle development in obese women with regular menstrual cycles versus obese women with irregular menstrual cycles and/or PCOS. The researchers believe that a hypocaloric and low-glycemic index eating pattern, based on the nutrition recommendations of the USDA Dietary Guidelines for Americans and American Diabetes Association, will reduce endocrine and metabolic disturbances and consequently improve ovulatory and menstrual cyclicity in PCOS.

To accomplish this objective, the researchers plan to recruit up to 50 obese (i.e. body mass index >30 kg/m*m) women with regular menstrual cycles and up to 50 obese women with irregular menstrual cycles and/or PCOS. Exclusion criteria will include ages <18 or >35 y and the use of hormonal contraception, fertility therapy, or insulin-sensitizing medication in the three months prior to enrollment. This study entails one month of data collection during a baseline interval (Month 1) and six months of data collection during a commercial weight loss program (Nutrisystem® D; Month 2 thru Month 7).

Participants will be evaluated every other day (in Months 1 and 7) or twice per week (in Months 2 thru 6) by transvaginal ultrasonography and venipuncture. Ultrasound images of the ovaries will be assessed for the total number and diameter of individual follicles. Serum samples will be assessed for follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, estradiol, and progesterone. Participants will also be evaluated at up to four time points using multiple metabolic and behavioral tests. Time points of interest will include: (1) Month 1 (i.e. pre-intervention), (2) after 5% weight loss, (3) after 10% weight loss, and (4) Month 7 (i.e. post-intervention). Assessments and endpoints of interest will include: (1) fasting blood tests (to detect serum androgens and markers of metabolic syndrome); (2) an oral glucose tolerance test (to characterize glucose and insulin dynamics at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120-minutes post-glucose ingestion); (3) a physical examination (to measure height, weight, waist and hips circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, and hirsutism score); (4) a dual x-ray absorptiometry scan (to quantify total and regional fat and lean mass); and (5) a quality of life questionnaire (to evaluate health-related quality of life).

To evaluate further changes in ovarian morphology, reproductive hormones, metabolic status, and body composition after the intervention, participants will be invited to return to the research unit six months after the study ends. The aforementioned procedures (transvaginal ultrasound scan; fasting blood tests; oral glucose tolerance test; physical examination; dual x-ray absorptiometry scan; and quality of life questionnaire) will be repeated.

Details
Condition Weight Loss, Anovulation, Amenorrhea, Infertility
Treatment Commercial Weight Loss Program
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT01785719
SponsorCornell University
Last Modified on16 October 2022

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

BMI ≥ 30.0 kg/mm
Self-reported history of regular menstrual cycles, irregular menstrual cycles, or PCOS
Absence of hormonal contraception, fertility therapy, or insulin-sensitizing medication in the three months prior to enrollment

Exclusion Criteria

Pregnant, breastfeeding, or lactating
Lack of one or both ovaries and/or uterus
Previous diagnosis of bleeding disorder(s) or current use of blood thinners/anticoagulants
Vegan or gluten free
Soy or peanut allergy
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