Last updated on June 2019

RCT Comparing Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Versus Alemtuzumab in MS

Brief description of study

This study is a randomized multicentre, multinational, treatment interventional study of RRMS patients with breakthrough inflammatory disease activity in spite of ongoing standard immunomodulatory medication. The study has two treatment arms; arm A: HSCT (hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) and arm B: alemtuzumab, a registered immunomodulatory treatment of RRMS. A pre-planned 3-year follow-up extension period will be performed depending on future funding.

The aim of the study is to assess the effectiveness and side effects of a new treatment intervention in RRMS; HSCT, and, thereby, the value of HSCT in clinical practice. Data from recently published patient series indicate that HSCT may have a significantly higher treatment effect than currently registered RRMS immunomodulatory treatments. This study will determine the relative role of HSCT versus alemtuzumab.

Detailed Study Description

This is a randomized study of autologous HSCT using a low intensity, non-ablative conditioning regimen with cyclophosphamide and ATG versus treatment with the currently presumed best available immunomodulatory medication (alemtuzumab) in RRMS patients with significant inflammatory disease activity in spite of ongoing immunomodulatory MS treatment.

Significant disease activity is defined as having one or more clinically reported multiple sclerosis (MS) relapse(s), AND 1 or more T1 Gd-enhanced lesion(s), OR three or more new or enlarging T2 lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over the last year while being treated on immunomodulatory medication by standard national guidelines. The relapse(s) must have occurred 3 or more months after the onset of an immunomodulatory treatment, as immunomodulatory treatment in MS may reach full effect after 3 months or more.

Both the knowledge of the treatment effect of registered immunomodulatory therapies for RRMS, and the number of treatments approved for RRMS by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) are rapidly increasing. During the study period, there may thus appear new supplementing information on other MS immunomodulatory treatments that favour the use of a new comparator (replacing or supplementing alemtuzumab as a comparator). This will be evaluated by the PMC if applicable during the study period and the planned extension period.

If the treatment efficacy obtained by HSCT is better than the currently most efficacious standard, immunomodulatory treatment in randomized treatment trials, HSCT will likely be approved as a part of the standard treatment recommendations for a significant proportion of RRMS patients. A randomized study regarding with statistical power to evaluate the clinical outcome of autologous HSCT compared to a standard immunomodulatory treatment in MS has not yet been published. Except for Sweden, HSCT is currently not registered as a part of standard MS treatment in the public health services of Europe. The HSCT regimen for the study will be identical to the regimen used in similar patient populations in Sweden, Norway and Denmark.

Alemtuzumab has been chosen as the primary comparator, because it is the immunomodulatory medication currently authorised by the EMA for treatment of RRMS with the most favourable therapeutic effects. In a meta-analysis of immunomodulatory treatment effects in RRMS, alemtuzumab was the immunomodulatory drug with the most eminent reduction of annualized relapse rate and 3 month confirmed disability progression.

In this study, a health economic evaluation will be included. Accordingly, the proposed study should provide a robust basis for future official decisions regarding the role of HSCT in RRMS treatment.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT03477500

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