Maintaining Mechanical Ventilation During Cardiopulmonary Bypass for Cardiac Surgery

  • End date
    Feb 10, 2022
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Rennes University Hospital
Updated on 25 January 2021
heart surgery


The main objective of this study is to measure the incidence of postoperative infections in 2 groups of patients: one group of patients ventilated and one group of patients without mechanical ventilation during cardiopulmonary bypass for cardiac surgery, and demonstrate that the incidence of postoperative infections is significantly lower in patients ventilated during cardiopulmonary bypass.


Cardiopulmonary bypass (CBP) during cardiac surgery induces a systemic inflammatory response associated with an immune dysregulation and a significant pulmonary dysfunction. First, the inflammatory response, usually attributed to surgical trauma, contact of blood with artificial surfaces, and ischemia reperfusion injury, is responsible for a postoperative immunodepression. For instance, an early impairment of lung cellular immune response after CPB, which could promote the development of postoperative pneumonia, has been found. Along these lines, a downregulation of human leukocyte antigen-DR antigen (HLA-DR) expression on monocytes and an increase in plasma interleukin 10 (IL-10) associated with the occurrence of nosocomial infections have been reported. Second, CPB induces a pulmonary dysfunction, which ranges from a temporary and clinically insignificant reduction in arterial oxygenation to a life-threatening injury manifested as acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This phenomenon is of multifactorial sources, but one of the main mechanisms is the occurrence of atelectasis during surgery. Atelectasis has been associated with lung injury and release of cytokines by shear forces on alveoli and small airways. However, it is not clear whether this injury is due to a recruitment/derecruitment phenomenon (i.e., atelectrauma) or whether it might by itself lead to the release of cytokine. Since CPB mechanically circulates and oxygenates blood bypassing the heart and lungs, usual procedure during CPB is to stop mechanical ventilation (MV) (apnea). Nevertheless, maintaining MV with positive expiratory pressure (PEEP) during CPB diminished the occurrence of atelectasis and the postoperative inflammatory response. Thus, we investigated the effects of maintaining MV during CPB for cardiac surgery on postoperative immunodepression and found that maintaining MV during CPB decreased postoperative immune dysfunction and could be an interesting strategy to diminish the occurrence of postoperative infection (nosocomial infection) without hampering the surgical procedure. However, these findings have to be confirmed in a clinical trial using the incidence of nosocomial infection as an endpoint.

Condition Cardiopulmonary Bypass, heart/lung bypass
Treatment Maintaining mechanical ventilation during surgery, Absence of mechanical ventilation during surgery
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03372174
SponsorRennes University Hospital
Last Modified on25 January 2021


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Inclusion Criteria

Is your age greater than or equal to 18 yrs?
Gender: Male or Female
Do you have Cardiopulmonary Bypass?
Do you have any of these conditions: Cardiopulmonary Bypass or heart/lung bypass?
Age 18 years old
Scheduled for any cardiac surgery (elective surgery) with cardio-pulmonary bypass, aortic clamp and cardioplegia, with median sternotomy and bi-pulmonary ventilation (cardiac valvular surgery (valve replacement or repair), coronary artery surgery, ascending aortic surgery and/or combined)
Written informed consent

Exclusion Criteria

Emergency surgery
Planned thoracotomy with one lung ventilation
Patients with known respiratory diseases (current respiratory infections, asthma, chronic obstructive or restrictive pulmonary disease, obstructive apnea syndrome)
Patients already intubated in the peri-operative period
Immunodepression defined by proven humoral or cellular deficiency, by continuous administration of steroids at any dose for more than one month prior to hospitalization, high-dose steroids (> 15 mg / kg / day of methylprednisolone or Equivalent), radiotherapy or chemotherapy in the previous year
Need for vasopressor or inotropic agents before surgery
Any acute infection in the last month before surgery
Hematological disorder, autoimmune disease, immunodeficiency, immunosuppressive therapy
Heart failure with an left ventricular ejection fraction<35%
Protected person (adults legally protected (under judicial protection, guardianship, or supervision), person deprived of their liberty
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