SMART-DAPPER: Leveraging the Depression And Primary-care Partnership for Effectiveness-implementation Research Project

  • End date
    Jun 19, 2024
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    University of California, San Francisco
Updated on 19 February 2021
psychiatric disorder


Despite carrying the vast majority of the global mental disorder burden, 75% of adults with mental disorders in Low and Middle Income Countries have no access to services. This study will test strategies for integrating first and second line evidence-based depression and trauma-related disorder treatments with primary care services at a large public sector hospital and conduct robust cost and cost-benefit analyses of each treatment to produce a "menu" of cost-benefit options for personalized, integrated mental health care with corresponding effectiveness and implementation values.


Mental disorders are a leading cause of global disability, driven by depression and anxiety. Most of the disease burden is in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs), where 75% of adults with mental disorders have no service access. Despite nearly 15 years of efficacy research showing that local non-specialists can provide evidence-based care for depression and anxiety in LMICs, few studies have advanced to the critical next step: identifying strategies for sustainable "real world" non-specialist treatment including integration with existing healthcare platforms and response to common clinical dilemmas, such as what treatment to start with and how to modify it.

Given the need to personalize treatment to achieve remission (absence of disease) and the scarcity of mental health specialists in LMICs, successful reduction of population-level disability caused by depression and anxiety requires (1) evidence-based strategies for first-line and second-line (non-remitter) treatment delivered by non-specialists, with (2) confirmation of presumed mechanism of action and (3) patient-level moderators of treatment outcome to inform personalized, non-specialist treatment algorithms.

The research team has worked in western Kenya for 6 years with a UCSF-Kenya collaboration that supports integrated HIV services at over 70 primary healthcare facilities in Kisumu County (Family AIDS Care and Education Services [FACES]). Primary care populations in Kenya have high prevalence of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) (26%) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) (35%). Kenyan leaders lack an evidence base for two essential treatments - psychotherapy and second generation antidepressants- without which scale-up will fall short of its potential. We conducted a randomized, controlled trial in Kisumu County of Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) delivered by non-specialists for HIV-positive patients with MDD and PTSD. In our study, IPT achieved full remission of MDD and PTSD in the majority of participants.

Given the high prevalence of MDD-PTSD co-morbidity, we will collaborate with the FACES team providing services to Kisumu County Hospital (KCH) primary care outpatient clinic (~10,000 patients/month) to conduct a randomized trial of IPT versus fluoxetine for MDD and/or PTSD. Local non-specialists will be trained in mental health care for the SMART and hired through the Kenyan Ministry of Health to work at KCH. SMART participants will be randomized to: (1) first line treatment with IPT or fluoxetine; (2) second line treatment for non-remitterstreatment "switch" (e.g., IPT to fluoxetine) or treatment "combination" (e.g., addition of IPT to fluoxetine). Research with mental health specialists in high income countries suggests that antidepressants and psychotherapy have equivalent short-term efficacy and that psychotherapy yields superior long-term relapse prevention. We will test the role of previously identified mechanisms in mediating remission and key moderators of treatment effect. Results of moderator and Q learning analyses will produce first and second-line non-specialist treatment algorithms.

Condition Endogenous depression, Trauma, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Wounds - qualifier, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders, Wounds, major depressive disorder, PTSD, traumatic injury, traumatic disorder
Treatment Interpersonal Psychotherapy, Fluoxetine
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03466346
SponsorUniversity of California, San Francisco
Last Modified on19 February 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Is your age greater than or equal to 18 yrs?
Gender: Male or Female
Do you have any of these conditions: Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or Wounds or traumatic disorder or Endogenous depression or PTSD or Wounds - qualifier or major depressive disorder or ...?
Do you have any of these conditions: Endogenous depression or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorders or Wounds - qualifier or major depressive disorder or traum...?
Kisumu County Hospital (KCH) adult primary care outpatient clinic attendees who screen positive for MDD on the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI); and/or PTSD on the MINI
Ability to attend weekly IPT sessions/fluoxetine monitoring; (3) 18 years or older

Exclusion Criteria

Cognitive dysfunction compromising ability to participate in IPT or accurately take fluoxetine (lack of orientation to person, place, time and situation)
acute suicidality (moderate or high score on the MINIsuicidality module) requiring higher level of care
drug/alcohol use disorders requiring substance use treatment (AUDIT score of 8 or higher, DAST score of 3 or higher)
history of mania or requiring treatment for hypomania (positive score on MINI mania/hypomania module)
Outside mental health treatment during the study treatment phases (any mental health treatment is allowed during follow-up phases and is recorded by study team)
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a site
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact


Phone Email

Please verify that you are not a bot.

Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Browse trials for

Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note