PLX3397 in Children and Young Adults With Refractory Leukemias and Refractory Solid Tumors Including Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) Associated Plexiform Neurofibromas (PN)

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • days left to enroll
    70
  • participants needed
    81
  • sponsor
    National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Updated on 12 September 2021
platelet count
cancer
corticosteroids
graft versus host disease
hydroxyurea
filgrastim
ejection fraction
monoclonal antibodies
nitrosoureas
immunosuppressive agents
measurable disease
kidney function tests
neutrophil count
cancer chemotherapy
solid tumour
ewing's sarcoma
mpnst
malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor

Summary

Background
  • Some people with cancer have solid tumors. Others have refractory leukemia. This doesn t go away after treatment. Researchers want to see if a drug called PLX3397 can shrink tumors or stop them from growing.
    Objectives
  • To find the highest safe dose and side effects of PLX3397. To see if it helps treat certain types of cancer.
    Eligibility
  • People ages 3 22 with a solid tumor or leukemia that has returned or not responded to cancer therapies.
  • For Phase II, people ages 3 31 with a Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) Associated Plexiform Neurofibroma (PN) that cannot be removed with surgery.
    Design
  • Participants will be screened with:
  • Medical history
  • Physical exam
  • Blood and urine tests
  • Heart tests
  • Scans or other tests of the tumor
  • Participants will take PLX3397 as a capsule once daily for a 28-day cycle. They can do this for up to 2 years.
  • During the study, participants will have many tests and procedures. They include repeats of the screening tests. Participants will keep a diary of symptoms.
  • Participants with solid tumors will have scans or x-rays.
  • Participants with NF1 PN will have MRI scans.
  • Participants with leukemia will have blood tests. They may have a bone marrow sample taken.
  • Some participants may have a biopsy.
  • When finished taking PLX3397, participants will have follow-up visits. They will repeat the screening tests and note side effects.
  • Phase II will follow the same procedures as Phase I above, but participants will also fill out questionnaires about their pain and quality of life.

Description

Background

  • Traditional therapeutic approaches to pediatric cancer have focused on cytotoxic agents and, more recently, targeted inhibition of cellular signaling pathways through the use of small molecule kinase inhibitors. Despite these interventions, significant numbers of pediatric cancer patients develop recurrent and resistant disease. Targeting the tumor microenvironment is a promising but incompletely explored strategy for the treatment of pediatric cancer and non-cancer tumors.
  • This trial will begin to explore the disruption of the interaction between neoplastic cells and the myeloid component of the tumor microenvironment as a treatment strategy for pediatric cancers and neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) related plexiform neurofibromas (PN) and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST).
  • PLX3397 is an orally available small molecule inhibitor of class III protein tyrosine kinases including Kit, CSF1R (colony stimulating factor 1 receptor)/Fms (Feline McDonough Sarcoma), and oncogenic Flt3 (Fms like tyrosine kinase).

Primary Objectives

  • Phase I: Evaluate the safety and tolerability of PLX3397, and determine a recommended phase II dose of PLX3397 in pediatric patients with refractory solid tumors including NF1 MPNST and brain tumors or refractory leukemias, limited to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Phase II: Determine the anti-tumor activity of PLX3397 in patients with NF1 PN. Objective response rate (ORR) will be defined as the proportion of patients with a partial response (PN volume decrease greater than or equal to 20% determined by volumetric MRI analysis).

Eligibility

  • Tumor type:
  • Phase I: Children (greater than or equal to 3 and lessthan or equal to 21 years of age) with recurrent or refractory solid tumors including primary neoplasms of the central nervous system and patients with NF1 and MPNST, or Children (greater than or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 21 years of age) with refractory leukemias (AML or ALL) (Phase 1).
  • Phase II: Patients with NF1 and inoperable PN, that cause morbidity (greater than or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 35 years of age).
  • Subjects must have adequate performance status, be able to swallow tablets, may not be pregnant or breastfeeding, and have adequate major organ function. Subjects with history of severe or uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, or history of prolonged QT syndrome will be excluded.

Design

  • Phase I
  • Using a rolling-six phase I design with 2-6 subjects per dose level and standard definitions of MTD (during cycle 1) and DLT.
  • PLX3397 will be administered orally (200 mg capsules) once daily on a continuous basis for cycles of 28 days without a rest period between cycles. Patients must be able to swallow intact capsules. Dosing will be based on body surface area (BSA), and the total weekly dose will be rounded to within 10% of calculated dose using a dosing nomogram.
  • At the MTD, the recommended phase II dose level will be expanded to up to 12 patients with attempts made to enroll at least 3 patients with refractory solid tumors and 3 patients with refractory acute leukemia (ALL and AML) to gain more experience with the toxicities and pharmacokinetics of PLX3397 in these disease cohorts. Attempts will be made to enroll equal numbers of patients between the ages of 3 and 12 years and over 12 years of age to gain pharmacokinetic and safety data over a broad age range.
  • Phase II
  • A Simon 2-stage design will be used: 9 evaluable patients with NF1 and inoperable PN that cause morbidity will be enrolled on the initial stage, and if greater than or equal to 1/9 patients have a response (PN volume decrease greater than or equal to 20% compared to baseline), enrollment will be expanded to a total of 17 evaluable patients.
  • Impact of therapy on patient-reported outcomes will be evaluated in patients with PN. This study will assess both general health-related qualify of life (QOL) and pain (pain intensity and pain interference) as patient-reported outcomes (PROs).
  • To complete both Phase I and Phase II portions, a maximum of (24 + 17= 41 plus up to 6 to replace inevaluable patients) 47 patients will be accrued in 2 to 2.5 years.

Details
Condition childhood ALL, Plexiform Neurofibroma, Connective and Soft Tissue Neoplasm, Sarcoma, All Solid Tumors, Solid Tumors, Lymphocytic Leukemia, Acute, Sarcoma (Pediatric), Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Soft Tissue Sarcoma, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, leukemia, acute lymphoblastic, sarcomas, soft tissue sarcomas, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute, Leukemia, Prolymphocytic, Acute
Treatment PLX3397
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT02390752
SponsorNational Cancer Institute (NCI)
Last Modified on12 September 2021

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Diagnosis
Phase I: Patients must have recurrent or refractory solid tumors or acute leukemia (limited to AML or ALL) or have been intolerant of prior therapies, confirmed by the Laboratory of Pathology, NCI, e.g., solid tumors including rhabdomyosarcoma, Ewing sarcoma, soft tissue sarcomas. These may include primary neoplasms of the central nervous system, such as high-grade (WHO grade III-IV) glioma. Patients with diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) or optic pathway glioma are exempt from histologic verification. For DIPG typical MRI findings must be present which include hypo- or isointense on T1-weighted imaging, hyperintense on FLAIR or T2-weighted imaging, epicenter in the pons in the face of a typical clinical presentation. Optic pathway glioma are located in the optic pathway and are typically hypo- or iso-intense on T1 and hyperintense on T2-weighted images
In addition, patients with NF1 and with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST)
Phase II: inoperable PN causing morbidity, such as (but not limited to) head and neck lesions that could compromise the airway or great vessels, brachial or lumbar plexus lesions that could cause nerve compression and loss of function, lesions that could result in major deformity (e.g., orbital lesions) or significant cosmetic problems, lesions of the extremity that cause limb hypertrophy or loss of function, and painful lesions in patients with NF1
Histologic confirmation of PN tumor is not necessary in the presence of consistent clinical and radiographic findings but should be considered if malignant degeneration of a PN is clinically suspected
A PN is defined as a neurofibroma that has grown along the length of a nerve and may involve multiple fascicles and branches. A spinal PN involves two or more levels with connection between the levels or extending laterally along the nerve. In addition to PN, all study subjects must have either positive genetic testing for NF1 confirmed in a CLIA certified laboratory or have at least one other diagnostic criterion for NF1 listed below (NIH Consensus conference)
Six or more cafe-au-lait macules (greater than or equal to 0.5cm in prepubertal subjects or greater than or equal to 1.5 cm in post pubertal subjects)
Freckling in axilla or groin
Optic glioma
Two or more Lisch nodules
A distinctive bony lesion (dysplasia of the sphenoid bone or dysplasia or thinning of long bone cortex)
A first-degree relative with NF1
Patients must have relapsed after or be refractory to effective standard therapies. For NF1 PN there is no standard medical therapy, and therefore no requirement for prior therapy. There are no limits on number of prior therapeutic regimens
Disease status: Phase I: Patients with refractory solid tumors including patients with NF1 and MPNST must have evaluable disease, patients with leukemia must have measurable or evaluable disease at the time of enrollment, which may include any evidence of disease including minimal residual disease detected by flow cytometry
\--Phase II: Patients must have measurable disease
Age (must have BSA greater than or equal to 0.55 m^2)
Phase I: greater than or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 21 years of age
Phase II: greater than or equal to 3 and less than or equal to 35 years of age
Ability of subject or Legally Authorized Representative [LAR] (the parent/guardian if subject is a minor) to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document
Patients must be able to swallow capsules
Performance Status: Karnofsky greater than or equal to 50% for patients > 16 years of age and Lansky greater than or equal to 50% for patients less than or eqal to 16 years of age. Subjects who are wheelchair bound because of paralysis will be considered "ambulatory" when they are up in their wheelchair. Subjects have to be able to travel to the NIH for evaluations
Prior therapy
Patients must have fully recovered (to Grade 1) from the acute toxic effects
of all prior anti-cancer therapy
Myelosuppressive chemotherapy: At least 21 days after the last dose of myelosuppressive chemotherapy (42 days if prior nitrosourea)
Biologic (anti-neoplastic agent): At least 7 days after the last dose of a biologic agent. For agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after administration, this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse events are known to occur. The duration of this interval must be discussed with the study chair
Immunotherapy: At least 42 days after the completion of any type of immunotherapy, e.g. tumor vaccines
Monoclonal antibodies: At least 3 half-lives of the antibody after the last dose of a monoclonal antibody
XRT: At least 7 days after local palliative XRT (small port); At least 150 days must have elapsed if prior TBI or if greater than or equal to 50% radiation of pelvis; greater than or equal to 14 days from whole brain radiation, craniospinal radiation, or targeted radiation to CNS tumors. At least 42 days must have elapsed if other substantial BM radiation
HSCT: greater than or equal to 56 days from stem cell transplant with no evidence of active graft vs. host disease; must be off immunosuppressive therapy for at least 4 weeks and have no active graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) at the time of entry onto this trial
Surgery: greater than or equal to 14 days from surgery
Others: greater than or equal to 7 days from last dose of short active hematopoietic growth factors, i.e. filgrastim, greater than or equal to 14 days for long-acting, i.e. pegfilgrastim
Steroids: Patients with CNS tumors who are managed with steroids are eligible if they have no worsening neurologic deficits and are on a stable or decreasing dose of corticosteroids for greater than or equal to 7 days prior to registration. Patients with leukemia receiving corticosteroids or hydroxyurea are eligible provided that the corticosteroids are not being used to manage GVHD and there has been no increase in corticosteroid of hydroxyurea dose for 7 days prior to starting PLX3397
Patient must have adequate hematologic, hepatic, and renal function, defined by
Absolute neutrophil count >= 1.5 (SqrRoot) 10^9/L
Hemoglobin > 10 g/dL
Platelet count >= 100 (SqrRoot) 10^9/L
AST and ALT less than or equal to upper limit of normal (ULN)
TBil and DBil less than or equal to ULN with an exception of patients with confirmed Gilbert's syndrome. For
patients with confirmed Gilberts syndrome, the TBil should be less than or
Cytopenias due to underlying disease (i.e. potentially reversible with anti-neoplastic therapy); A subject will not be excluded because of cytopenia due to disease, based on the results of bone marrow studies
equal to 1.5 (SqrRoot) ULN
Serum creatinine less than or equal to 1.5 (SqrRoot) ULN
Exceptions
Known active or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, or positive hepatitis B (Hep B) surface antigen. Prior hepatitis infection that has been treated with highly effective therapy with no evidence of residual infection and with normal liver function (ALT, AST, total and direct bilirubin less than or equal to ULN) is allowed
Hepatobiliary diseases including biliary tract diseases, autoimmune hepatitis, inflammation, fibrosis, cirrhosis of liver caused by viral, alcohol, or genetic reasons. Gilbert's disease is allowed if TBil is less than or equal to 1.5 x ULN
Cardiac ejection fraction greater than or equal to 50%, and QTcF < 450 ms (male) or <470 ms (female) on ECG at Baseline. (Fridericia's Formula: QTcF = (QT)/RR0.33)
Contraception: Women of child-bearing potential must agree to use an effective method of birth control during treatment and for 1 month after receiving their last dose of study drug. Fertile men must also agree to use an acceptable method of birth control while on study drug and for at least one week after last dose

Exclusion Criteria

Individuals who are pregnant or breast feeding or who become pregnant while enrolled on this trial will be excluded from participation, due to the unknown effects of PLX3397 on a growing fetus or newborn child
Individuals with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors will not be eligible to participate in the phase II portion of the trial
Ongoing treatment with any other cancer therapy or investigational agent, with the exception of IT chemotherapy for leukemia, when indicated
Individuals who require therapy with warfarin
Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
Active untreated infection
Known chronic Hepatitis B or C, or HIV infection
History of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to PLX3397 or other agents used in study
Patients with PT and/or INR higher than or equal to 1.5 time upper limit of normal, unless patients have lupus anticoagulant in which case they are eligible if cleared by hematology
Drugs that strongly inhibit or potentiate CYP3A4
During Phase I: patients who have received these drugs within 14 days or within 5 half-lives of the drug (whichever is longer) prior to study initiation will be excluded
During Phase II: These drugs should be avoided if possible, as these drugs could increase or decrease blood levels of PLX3397
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