One Stage vs. Two Stage Gubernaculum Sparing Laparoscopic Orchidopexy (GSLO)

  • End date
    Sep 26, 2021
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    McMaster University
Updated on 26 January 2021


Undescended Testis (UDT) is the most common congenital anomaly of the genitalia in boys and it is commonly managed by surgical intervention. Patients with intra-abdominal or non palpable testis, specifically, are often managed using a laparoscopic assisted orchidopexy, a common surgical technique to bring undescended testes down into the scrotum. Evidence in the medical literature to support the superiority of either one stage or two stage gubernaculum sparing laparoscopic orchidopexy (GSLO) is lacking. Due to this reason, this study focuses on the effects of one stage versus two stage GSLO on a patient important outcome: testicular atrophy.


The principal research question to be addressed is: what is the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial to assess whether in boys, 1-5 years of age, diagnosed with intraabdominal UDT, two-stage GSLO results in fewer postoperative testicular atrophies when compared to single-stage GSLO? The results of this study will be used to assess the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial on this topic. If our protocol does not require significant modifications, then participants assessed in this pilot trial will be included as participants in the definitive multicenter trial.

To the best of our knowledge, the full-scale trial will be the first prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to study the success rates of single-stage and two-stage GSLO. The results of the definitive multicenter trial will inform guidelines both locally and nationally, regarding the efficacy of staged techniques for orchidopexy. The results of this study will also inform and improve current care for children with IAT, as atrophy rates can be as high as 33% using the traditional laparoscopic approach.

Furthermore, if it is shown that a single stage approach is more efficacious than a two-stage approach, it will limit unnecessary exposure of young children to general anesthetic, which may be associated with an increased risk for learning disability or behavioral problems

The control group will receive single-stage GSLO procedure, while the intervention group will receive a two-stage GSLO technique. The first stage of the two-stage technique involves the ligation of testicular vessels laparoscopically, or transection of these vessels using cautery. Approximately 3-6 months following the completion of the first stage, the patient is seen again and the second stage of the procedure is performed. Access is obtained with a Hasson technique through an umbilical incision. Dissection begins laterally and proceeds along the superior margin of the internal inguinal ring (IIR), extending medially beyond the obliterated umbilical artery, while preserving a wide strip of peritoneum between the testis and the gubernaculum. Further dissection is then performed proximally, near the bifurcation of the iliac vessels, which allows free mobilization of this peritoneal triangle containing collateral blood supply to the testis. Next, a laparoscopic grasper is advanced through the IIR alongside the gubernaculum, and into the most dependent aspect of the scrotum. The distal gubernacular attachments and preserved cremasteric vessels, along with the testis, are pulled through the IIR with the assistance of a laparoscopic grasper, following the normal testicular descent route into the ipsilateral scrotum. Upon completion of dissection and descent, the testis is fixed to the scrotum in a sub-dartos pouch with a single 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS) stitch. If the patient is randomized to receive single-stage GSLO procedure, it is important to note that both the ligation of testicular vessels and the mobilization of the testis occur during the same operation.

Condition Undescended testicle, cryptorchidism, undescended testes
Treatment Two-Stage GSLO Technique, One-Stage GSLO Technique
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT02936024
SponsorMcMaster University
Last Modified on26 January 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Is your age between 1 yrs and 5 yrs?
Are you male?
Do you have Undescended testicle?
Do you have any of these conditions: Undescended testicle or cryptorchidism or undescended testes?
boys 1-5 years of age at presentation to Pediatric Urology Clinics
patients diagnosed with intraabdominal UDT
patients who require one- or two-stage repair performed by fellowship-trained Pediatric Urologists

Exclusion Criteria

patients who have undergone previous laparoscopic orchidopexy
patients with palpable testes
patients requiring orchiectomy
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