Intra-tumoral Ipilimumab Plus Intravenous Nivolumab Following the Resection of Recurrent Glioblastoma (GlitIpNi)

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  • sponsor
    Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel
Updated on 25 February 2022
neutrophil count
blood transfusion
recurrent glioblastoma


Phase I clinical trial on intra-tumoral ipilimumab plus intravenous nivolumab following the resection of recurrent glioblastoma.

The aim of this clinical trial is to exploit the potential synergy of combined intra-tumoral CTLA-4 and systemic PD-1 blockade while minimizing the risk for increased immune-related toxicity by intratumoral administration of the CTLA-blocking mAb ipilimumab following the resection of the recurrent glioblastoma.


Nivolumab (OpdivoTM, BMS), a human IgG-4 mAb that blocks the Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1, CD279) has demonstrated anti-tumor activity in patients with various solid- and hematological neoplasms. Nivolumab has been registered by EMA and/or FDA for the treatment of patients with advanced melanoma, renal cell carcinoma (RCC), non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and Hodgkin lymphoma. In a phase I dose escalation clinical trial, receptor blockade of PD-1 by nivolumab on circulating lymphocytes was maximal at a dose of 0,3 mg/kg. In patients with advanced melanoma nivolumab had a comparable tumor response rate at a dose range of 0.1 to 10 mg/kg q2wks. Nivolumab was further developed at a dose of 3 mg/kg q2wks and improved the overall survival of patients with advanced melanoma, NSCL, RCC and HNSCC.

Ipilimumab (YervoyTM, BMS), a human IgG-1 anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody improves the overall survival of patients with advanced melanoma; and the relapse-free survival after complete resection of high-risk stage III melanoma. Animal models have established the safety and efficacy of intra-tumoral administration of ipilimumab. An intratumoral dose of CTLA-4 blocking mAb administered at a ratio of [1:100] compared to intravenous dosing was found to result in equivalent anti-tumor effect and was associated with less systemic toxicity.

Combined treatment with ipilimumab (3 mg/kg q3wks x4) plus nivolumab (1 mg/kg q3 wks x4 followed by 3 mg/kg q2 wks) further increases the tumor response rate and progression-free survival of patients with advanced melanoma and has been registered by EMA and FDA; this combination therapy is associated with a higher incidence of immune related adverse events. Nivolumab and ipilimumab have distinct immunological mechanisms that can be revealed by analyzing TCR usage in blood lymphocytes.

Preliminary safety and activity of nivolumab and its combination with ipilimumab in recurrent glioblastoma (CHECKMATE-143) were presented at the 2015 and 2016 ASCO Annual meetings (20 pts were treated, 10 in each arm). [15] All nivolumab related AEs were grade 1 or 2. Eight (80%) nivolumab plus ipilimumab treated patients experienced grade 3/4 AEs. Drug-related AEs leading to discontinuation occurred only in nivolumab plus ipilimumab patients (n = 5; 50%), including colitis, cholecystitis, diabetic ketoacidosis, confusion, and increased lipase. There were no drug-related deaths. Based on these experiences, the sponsor (BMS) decided to further investigate nivolumab as a mono-therapy in patients with recurrent- and newly diagnosed glioblastoma (CA209-143; CA209-498 and CA209-548). Antitumor activity of nivolumab has recently been established in children with recurrent glioblastoma that is characterized by biallelic mismatch repair deficiency.

Condition Glioblastoma
Treatment Ipilimumab (YervoyTM, 50 mg/10 mL solution), Nivolumab (OpdivoTM, 40 mg/4mL solution)
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03233152
SponsorUniversitair Ziekenhuis Brussel
Last Modified on25 February 2022


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Inclusion Criteria

a) Subjects must have signed and dated an approved written informed consent form in accordance with regulatory and institutional guidelines. This must be obtained before the performance of any protocol related procedures that are not part of normal subject care b) Subjects must be willing and able to comply with scheduled visits, treatment schedule, laboratory tests, tumor biopsies, and other requirements of the study. c) Histopathological diagnosis of glioblastoma (= WHO grade IV glioma of the central nervous system); both patients with "de novo" and "secondary" glioblastoma are eligible; patients who have histological proof of a lower-grade glioma (WHO grade I, II or III) and have evidence for transformation to WHO-grade IV glioma on imaging of the brain are eligible for study participation; d) Diagnosis of glioblastoma recurrence and/or progression following prior treatment with surgery, radiation therapy and temozolomide chemotherapy (recurrence/progression is defined as significant [according to the investigators assessment] growth and/or recurrence of the glioblastoma tumor mass on sequential MRI of the brain); e) The following disease characteristics should be present
Presence of a measurable tumor lesion that is characterized by gadolinium enhancement on T1-MRI of the brain (with a longest diameter of > 10 mm and a perpendicular diameter of >5mm)
No evidence of clinically relevant spontaneous intra-tumor hemorrhage on baseline MRI-imaging or in the prior disease history; f) No contraindication for evaluation by gadolinium enhanced MRI pr FET-PET of the brain; g) ECOG performance status score of 0, 1 or 2; h) An interval of at least 4 months (: 16 weeks) after the end of postoperative radiation therapy for glioblastoma unless progression is confirmed on an MRI of the brain obtained > 4 week after the first observation of progression; and with an interval of at least 4 weeks after the last administration of temozolomide; i) No contra-indication for neurosurgical resection of the glioblastoma recurrence; j) Male or female, 18 years of age or older; k) Resolution of all acute toxic effects of prior surgical procedures, radiotherapy and temozolomide to NCI CTCAEv4.0 grade 0 or 1 except for alopecia; l) Adequate organ function as defined by the following criteria
Total serum bilirubin < 1.5 x ULN (patients with Gilbert's disease exempt who should have bilirubin < 2x ULN)
AST and ALT < 2.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
Serum creatinine 1.5 x ULN or calculated creatinine clearance 60 mL/min
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) > 1500/mm without growth factor support
Platelets > 75 000 cells/mm
Hemoglobin 9 g/dL (which may be obtained by transfusion or growth factor support)
FT4 hormone levels within normal range

Exclusion Criteria

prior treatment on a nivolumab and/or ipilimumab trial
prior treatment with an anti-CTLA-4 or anti-PD1:-L1 targeted therapy
gastrointestinal abnormalities including
Inability to take oral medication
Requirement for intravenous alimentation
Prior surgical procedures affecting absorption including gastric resection
Treatment for active peptic ulcer disease in the past 6 months
Malabsorption syndromes
Active gastrointestinal bleeding, unrelated to cancer, as evidenced by hematemesis, hematochezia or melena in the past 3 months without evidence of resolution documented by endoscopy or colonoscopy
evidence of pre-existing uncontrolled hypertension as documented by 2 baseline blood pressure readings taken at least 1 hour apart. The baseline systolic blood pressure readings must be 140 mm Hg, and the baseline diastolic blood pressure readings must be 90 mm Hg. Patients whose hypertension is controlled by antihypertensive therapies are eligible
concurrent treatment
In another therapeutic clinical trial
No requirement of anticoagulant therapy with oral vitamin K antagonists. Low-dose anticoagulants for maintenance of patency of central venous access devise or prevention of deep venous thrombosis is not allowed. Therapeutic use of low molecular weight heparin is not allowed
Subjects with active, known, or suspected autoimmune disease are not eligible. Subjects with type I diabetes mellitus, residual hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis only requiring hormone replacement, skin disorders (such as vitiligo, psoriasis, or alopecia) not requiring systemic treatment are permitted to enroll
Subjects requiring systemic treatment with either corticosteroids (> 16 mg daily methylprednisolone equivalent) or other immunosuppressive medications within 14 days of study enrollment. Inhaled or topical steroids are permitted in the absence of active autoimmune disease
active uncontrolled seizure disorder
myocardial infarction, severe/unstable angina, coronary/peripheral artery bypass graft, symptomatic congestive heart failure or any unstable arrhythmia, cerebrovascular accident or transient ischemic attack, within the 12 months prior to study drug administration. No current or recent (within 1 month) use of a thrombolytic agent or a thrombo-embolic event
known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related illness
serious uncontrolled medical disorder or active infection that would impair their ability to receive study treatment
history of a malignancy (other than glioma) except those treated with curative intent for skin cancer (other than melanoma) or in situ breast or cervical cancer or those treated with curative intent for any other cancer with no evidence of disease for 5 years
other severe acute or chronic medical or psychiatric condition, or laboratory abnormality that would impart, in the judgment of the investigator, excess risk associated with study participation or study drug administration, or which, in the judgment of the investigator, would make the patient inappropriate for entry into this study
dementia or significantly altered mental status that would prohibit the understanding
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