Last updated on May 2019

Comparative Effectiveness of Pulmonary Embolism Prevention After Hip and Knee Replacement


Brief description of study

PEPPER is a randomized study comparing the three most commonly used anticoagulants in North America in patients who have elected to undergo primary or revision hip or knee joint replacement surgery. The anticoagulants being compared are enteric coated aspirin, low intensity warfarin, and rivaroxaban.

Detailed Study Description

PEPPER is a large pragmatic clinical trial to inform patient choice and balance risk tolerances of individuals who face decisions about different drugs and strategies for deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) prevention after total hip (THA) and knee (TKA) replacement. Indeed, clinical equipoise exists to ethically support such a randomized trial that has great potential to change current practice. We have selected the three prophylaxis methods that represent current orthopaedic practice in North America and collectively account for more than 80% of all hip and knee replacements; a) enteric coated aspirin (regimen with lowest bleeding risk; clinical PE and all-cause mortality rates comparable to more intensive anticoagulants), b) low intensity (INR Target 2.0) warfarin (time honored and one of the most common North American regimens; low bleeding risk [1-2%]), and c) rivaroxaban, a new oral direct Factor Xa inhibitor (regimen with lowest PE and DVT rate but higher bleeding risk [3-5%]). Prophylaxis will continue for 30 days, in accordance with clinical guidelines, and pneumatic compression will be utilized in hospital in conjunction with each treatment group. Each regimen is commonly used in contemporary practice, supported by observational and clinical trial data, and endorsed by the American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) and American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons (AAOS) guidelines

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT02810704

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