Last updated on June 2019

EntrestoTM (LCZ696) In Advanced Heart Failure (LIFE Study)


Brief description of study

The primary objective of the study is to determine whether, in patients with symptomatic, advanced heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction, treatment with LCZ696 for 24 weeks will improve Pro-B-type Natriuretic Peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, which reflect hemodynamic and clinical status, compared to treatment with valsartan.

Detailed Study Description

Patients with advanced heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) have extremely high morbidity and mortality with 1 year outcomes of death and hospitalization of approximately 50%. For the most advanced heart failure patients, the evidence base for medical treatment is limited with consensus guidelines recommending consideration for either cardiac transplant or ventricular assist device, or palliative care.

The PARADIGM-HF trial showed that LCZ696, which consists of the neprilysin inhibitor sacubitril and the ARB valsartan, improved morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic HFrEF in comparison to enalapril. However, limited experience with advanced heart failure patients was gained from patients enrolled in the trial. Because the information on the effects of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with NYHA class IV heart failure is limited, the updated 2016 ACC/AHA/HFSA guidelines for the treatment of heart failure do not yet endorse the use of sacubitril/valsartan in patients with NYHA class IV heart failure. Accordingly, experience is needed on the use of, and outcomes with LCZ696 in patients unable to tolerate target doses of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI)/ angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB).

This study will be a randomized, double-blinded trial of advanced heart failure subjects with 1:1 randomization to either LCZ696 (sacubitril and valsartan) or valsartan. Study drug will be administered in a double-dummy fashion, in which subjects take active (LCZ696 or valsartan) and placebo. Approximately 400 subjects will be randomized into the study.

Subjects will have an initial screening evaluation, including baseline laboratory tests as well as an assessment of left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, at which time preliminary subject eligibility will be determined. The LV ejection fraction may have been obtained within the prior 3 months by 2-D echocardiogram, LV angiogram or radionuclide scintigraphy. Willing subjects meeting entry criteria will be consented. Those who meet all entry criteria and are interested in study participation will be enrolled.

Enrolled subjects will complete baseline assessments and undergo a run-in period of 3-7 days with LCZ696 50 mg (equivalent to Entresto 24/26 mg) po BID prior to randomization. For subjects taking an ACEI, the ACEI will be withheld for 36 hours prior to first dose of LCZ696.

Subjects who tolerate the run-in period with LCZ696 will be randomized 1:1 to LCZ696 or valsartan.

Study treatment will be titrated to the target dose of 200 mg LCZ696 (equivalent to Entresto 97/103 mg) as two 100 mg LCZ696 and 2 placebo tablets po BID or valsartan 160 mg (two 80 mg valsartan and 2 placebo tablets) po BID.*

Randomized subjects will receive the first dose of study drug as follows:

  • For subjects not previously taking ACEI or ARB, previously taking ACEI or ARB at a low dose*, or subjects who have an eGFR < 30 mL/min/1.73m, the starting dose of valsartan will be 40 mg po BID and the starting dose of LCZ696 will be 50 mg po BID.
  • For subjects taking an ARB at greater than low dose, the starting dose of valsartan will be 80 mg po BID and the starting dose of LCZ696 will be 100 mg po BID.*
  • For subjects taking an ACEI at greater than low dose, the ACEI will be withheld for 36 hours prior to randomization. The starting dose of valsartan will be 80 mg po BID and the starting dose of LCZ696 will be 100 mg po BID.*
  • At Investigator discretion, study drug may be started at the low dose (LCZ696/placebo 50 mg po BID or valsartan/placebo 40 mg po BID) if there are any concerns regarding tolerability at the 100 mg / 80 mg dose.)

Per package insert, the valsartan compounded in Entresto is more bioavailable than the valsartan in other marketed formulations. The dose equivalence for valsartan compounded in Entresto compared to valsartan prepared alone (Entresto dose = marketed valsartan dose) is as follows: 26 mg=40 mg, 51 mg=80 mg, 103 mg=160 mg.

Low dose is defined as 24 hour dose of 10 mg lisinopril, 5 mg ramipril, 50 mg losartan, 10 mg olmesartan, or other dose equivalent.

Dose adjustments will be performed every 2 weeks by doubling the dose of LCZ696 or valsartan up to the target maximum dose. The doses of LCZ696 are 50 mg (one 50 mg active and 1 placebo tablet), 100 mg (one 100 mg active and 1 placebo tablet) and 200 mg (two 100 mg active and 2 placebo tablets). These doses are equivalent to 24/26 mg, 49/51 mg, and 97/103 mg commercial Entresto, respectively. The doses of valsartan are 40mg (one 40 mg active and 1 placebo tablet), 80 mg (one 80 mg active and 1 placebo tablet), and 160 mg (two 80 mg active and 2 placebo tablets). The criteria for doubling the dose will be based on systolic blood pressure (a SBP > 90 mmHg is required for up titration), changes in renal function (maximum serum creatinine of 2.0 mg/dL), and the absence of symptoms of hypotension. For those not tolerating the current dose of study drug, the dose will be down-titrated to the previous tolerated dose. Subjects will return to clinic for follow-up visits at 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after randomization.

Assessments at the follow-up visits include some or all of the following: medical history, review of medications, physical examination with the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class assessment, Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) quality of life questionnaire, local laboratory testing (creatinine, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), electrolytes), Core laboratory testing (Cystatin C, NT-proBNP), adherence and tolerance assessment, and adverse event monitoring.

Follow-up phone calls will be made at 10, 16, and 20, weeks after randomization to assess dosing compliance, record the occurrence of applicable adverse events and events of interest, and remind the subject of the date and time of their next in-person visit.

A final phone visit is conducted 2 weeks after the last dose of study drug (26 weeks after randomization) to assess clinical stability and any applicable adverse events.

During the consent process, subjects will be asked if interested in donating samples and data for research purposes via a biorepository and/or genetic study. Based on site and IRB preference, this optional part of the study may be incorporated into the main consent or may be a separate consent and Institutional Review Board (IRB) application.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT02816736

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