Pharmacokinetic Study of Antiretroviral Drugs and Related Drugs During and After Pregnancy

    Not Recruiting
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Updated on 21 June 2021
antiretroviral agents
hiv antibody
antibody test
hiv antibodies


The purpose of this study is to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of antiretroviral (ARV) and tuberculosis (TB) medications in pregnant women and their infants. (Pharmacokinetics are the various interactions between a drug and the body.) This study will also evaluate the PKs of certain ARVs in postpartum women before and after starting hormonal contraceptives. The PKs of these drugs will be evaluated by measuring the amount of medicine present in blood and/or vaginal secretions.


Pregnant women experience unique physiological changes that may result in clinically significant alterations in drug PKs. Unfortunately, there have been few clinical trials to study the PKs of ARV, TB, and hormonal contraceptive drugs in pregnant women. The development of appropriate dosing regimens for the HIV-infected pregnant woman is critical to the health of both mother and fetus. Overdosing may lead to maternal adverse events and increased risk of fetal toxicity, while underdosing may lead to inadequate virologic control, increased risk of developing drug resistance mutations, and a higher rate of perinatal HIV transmission. This study will evaluate the PKs of ARVs used during pregnancy; evaluate TB drugs used during pregnancy, both in women who are HIV-positive and also taking ARVs and in women who are HIV-negative and not taking ARVs; and evaluate the PKs of hormonal contraceptive medications taken along with ARVs.

There will be five main groups of study arms: HIV-infected pregnant women taking ARVs without TB treatment, HIV-infected pregnant women taking ARVs with first-line TB treatment, HIV-uninfected pregnant women taking no ARVs with first-line TB treatment, HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women with or without ARVs with second-line TB treatment for drug-resistant TB, and HIV-infected postpartum women taking ARVs and hormonal contraceptives. Participants will not receive medications through this studythey will continue on ARV, TB, and/or contraceptive medications prescribed by their health care providers.

Women who are 20 0/7 weeks to 37 6/7 weeks pregnant will be enrolled in this study and will remain in the study for up to 12 weeks after delivery. Postpartum women will be enrolled at 2 to 12 weeks after delivery and followed until 6 to 7 weeks after starting contraceptives. Infants will be followed for 16 to 24 weeks of life. At all study visits, participants will undergo a medical history, a physical exam, and blood collection. At some visits, women in some arms will undergo a vaginal swab. Blood collection from the mother and the detached umbilical cord will occur during delivery. Intensive PK sampling will be performed at study visits during the second and third trimester of pregnancy and/or postpartum, depending on the study arm. Additional study visits may occur depending on the ARV drug regimen prescribed.

Condition HIV infection
Treatment Lopinavir/Ritonavir, isoniazid, efavirenz, atazanavir/cobicistat, darunavir/ritonavir, darunavir/cobicistat, etravirine, elvitegravir/cobicistat, dolutegravir, tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), TAF/cobicistat, TAF/ritonavir, nevirapine, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide, kanamycin, amikacin, capreomycin, moxifloxacin, levofloxacin, ofloxacin, ethionamide/prothionamide, terizidone/cycloserine, para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), high dose isoniazid (INH), bedaquiline, clofazamine, delamanid, linezolid, pretomanid, atazanavir/ritonavir/tenofovir, ethinyl estradiol oral contraceptive, etonogestrel implant
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT00042289
SponsorNational Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID)
Last Modified on21 June 2021

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