Comparison of Optimal Hypertension Regimens (AIMHY-INFORM)

  • days left to enroll
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Updated on 24 February 2022
antihypertensive drugs


High blood pressure (Hypertension) is extremely common and is a major cause of heart disease, kidney disease and stroke. One in three of the UK (United Kingdom) population will require treatment for hypertension at some point in their lives. A healthy lifestyle alone is often not enough to control blood pressure, and drug treatment is usually required. Although a wide variety of drugs are available to treat hypertension, choosing the right kind of tablet or combination of tablets for individual patients is a problem, and therefore many people have poor blood pressure control.

Hypertension treatment within the UK is currently selected according to age and self-defined ethnicity (SDE). There are limitations to this approach which include wide variability in the response to hypertension drug classes between people. There is also uncertainty about selecting hypertension drugs for ethnic minorities other than those of African/Caribbean ancestry, for example, South Asians because of a lack of information from trials. In the AIM HY-INFORM study the investigators are looking to recruit equal number of black/caribbean, south asian and white european participants to be able to compare differences in hypertension treatments and ethnicity.

The primary objective of this study is to determine if the response to antihypertensive drugs differs by self defined ethnicity.


In the UK, current NICE (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) guidance stratifies hypertension treatment according to age and self-defined ethnicity (SDE). Different initial monotherapies are recommended for all those aged over 55 years, and for younger black compared to white individuals. However, there is no recommended stratification for combination therapy. The evidence based supporting the current guidance on SDE stratification is limited, and there is a specific lack of data from UK based populations.

Stratification based on SDE has a number of limitations and an alternative approach is stratification based on ancestry informative markers (AIM). There are genetic polymorphisms, which show substantially different frequencies between populations from different geographical regions, and can predict geographical ancestry with remarkable accuracy. AIM are thus more likely to capture the genetic component of variation in drug response in ethnically diverse population.

Metabolomic profiling of plasma and urine may provide complementary information to AIM, as differences between individuals will reflect both genetic and environmental influences. To address these issues the investigators intend to compare the variation in response to antihypertensive drug treatments in three SDE cohorts, and relate this to variation in AIM and metabolomic profiles. Our objective is to test the validity of current NICE guidance on antihypertensives stratification based on SDE, to provide evidence about SDE stratification for dual therapy, and to examine whether more effective personalisation of antihypertensive treatment, can be achieved using AIM and/or metabolomic profiling.

An assessment of patient stratification based on AIM phenotypes against SDE will enable the selection of optimal and more effective choices of anti-hypertensive treatments from currently existing first line drugs (and combinations of) and ultimately reduce the attrition of antihypertensive therapies.

Output from the trial will provide the first perspective evidence for best treatment choice according to SDE for white, black and asian populations in the UK. This should reduce the number of consultations; time required to achieve optimal blood pressure control and the contribution to between hypertension control in the UK.

Patients in the trial will be enrolled on a monotherapy or dual therapy regime depending on their history of hypertension. The monotherapy group of patients will enter a randomised, open-label, three-treatment three-period cross over trial.

The dual therapy group of patients will enter a randomised, open-label, four-treatment four-period cross over trial.

Randomisation, for each crossover design, will be stratified by three SDE groups.

The duration for individual participants will be approximately 24 (monotherapy) or 32 weeks (dual therapy)

The hypertensive medication used in this trial are:

Amlodipine 5 or 10mg, Chlortalidone 25mg, Amiloride 10mg, Lisinopril 10 or 20mg,

Participants on the dual therapy treatment arm will have a total of 11 visits including screening/enrolment (visit 1) and baseline visit (visit 2)

Participants on the monotherapy treatment arm will have a total of 9 visits including screening/enrolment (visit 1) and baseline visit (visit 2)

A total number of 1320 participants will be enrolled in the study across participating sites, so that approximately 660 participants in each therapy regime (approximately 220 participants per ethnic group) complete the trial.

Condition Hypertension
Treatment Amlodipine, Amiloride, Lisinopril, Chlortalidone, Chlortalidone
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT02847338
SponsorCambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust
Last Modified on24 February 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

To be included in the trial the participant must
Have given written informed consent to participate
Be aged 18 to 65 years inclusive
Self-Define Ethnicity: participants should SELF IDENTIFY into 1 of the three groups
White White British White Irish Any other white background
Black or Black British Black Caribbean Black African Any other black
Asian or Asian British Asian Indian Asian Pakistani Asian Bangladeshi Any
other Asian background
\. Be hypertensive defined as:- Mono-therapy rotation
currently untreated with EITHER an ABPM day time average blood pressure 135mmHG (systolic) or 85mmHg (diastolic) OR Home BP measurements using a validated device based on the average of 10 blood pressure readings of 135 mmHg (systolic) or 85 mmHg (diastolic)
Patients who may be taking antihypertensive drugs at sub therapeutic doses or in ineffective combinations, and who are felt likely to be controllable on a study drug and willing and able to be washed out, at the discretion of the CI (Chief Investigator) / PI (Principal Investigator), can enter the trial if they meet the above criteria
Dual therapy rotation
a.Treated hypertensive receiving one to three antihypertensive drugs with a
blood pressure (ABPM daytime average blood pressure or Home BP as in a.)
between 135 or 200 mmHg (systolic) AND between 85 or 110 mmHg (diastolic)

Exclusion Criteria

The presence of any of the following will mean participants are ineligible
Participant does not fit into one of the defined ethnic groups e.g. Mixed
Pregnant or breastfeeding women
Known or suspected secondary hypertension
Significant sensitivity or contraindications to any of the study medications
Participants taking lithium or are regularly consuming non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at variable doses
Requirement to take any of the study drugs continuously e.g. ACEi and heart failure
Any clinically significant hepatic impairment
Any clinically significant kidney impairment
Concurrent participation in another clinical trial using systemic vasoactive medications or medications known to interact with the study drugs (participation in another study as part of the AIM HY mechanistic or social science programme will not be an exclusion criterion)
Patients who are deemed unsuitable by the investigator on clinical grounds
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a study center
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer  to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact


Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Browse trials for

Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note