Last updated on February 2020

Impact of EMpagliflozin on Cardiac Function and Biomarkers of Heart Failure in Patients With Acute MYocardial Infarction

Brief description of study

This study is planned to investigate the impact of Empagliflozin on biomarkers of heart failure in patients with myocardial infarction with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus within 6 months after the event.

Detailed Study Description

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with an about two to three-fold increased risk for cardiovascular events as compared to subjects without diabetes.

Sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT-2) is mainly expressed in human kidneys and small intestinal cells. In the proximal tubule of the nephron SGLT-2 is responsible for the reabsorption of approximately 90% of the filtrated glucose. Inhibition of SGLT-2 was shown to increase renal glucose excretion and to lower glucose. Subsequently, a number of SGLT-2 inhibitors were developed and are currently approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Recently, Zinman et al published the results of the EMPA-REG-OUTCOME (Cardiovascular Outcome Event Trial in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patient) trial where the cardiovascular impact of a glucose lowering regimen including Empagliflozin as compared to usual glucose control without an SGLT-2 inhibitor was investigated. The trial demonstrated an unexpected reduction in the primary composite endpoint, comprising cardiovascular death, non-fatal myocardial infarction and non-fatal stroke. The reduction was mainly driven by a 38% relative risk reduction in cardiovascular deaths; moreover they demonstrated an impressive 35% relative risk reduction in the secondary endpoint hospitalization for heart failure. Of note, the beneficial effects observed in the Empagliflozin group seem to occur very rapidly after commencing the treatment, as suggested by the early separation of the Kaplan-Meier curves. However, the mechanisms responsible for this finding remain unclear. Diuretic effects with subsequent impact on hemodynamics or potential cardioprotective effects of glucagon, which levels rise under the treatment with SGLT-2 inhibitors and the resulting rise in ketone bodies or a small increase in hematocrit have been suggested.

The aim of our trial is to investigate whether Empagliflozin treatment commenced within 72-h after acute myocardial infarction has an impact on heart failure in subjects with and without diabetes mellitus type 2.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT03087773

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Recruitment Status: Open

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