Arteriovenous Fistulae: Drug-eluting Balloon Angioplasty

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • End date
    Apr 11, 2026
  • participants needed
    262
  • sponsor
    Rennes University Hospital
Updated on 11 November 2021

Summary

Dysfunctions such as tight stenosis or thrombosis in haemodialysis vascular accesses are the leading cause of hospitalisationand morbidity in chronic haemodialysis patients incurring significant related costs estimated at over one billion dollars in the USA.

Dysfunctions of these vascular accesses are generally treated by conventional angioplasty as this is the least invasive procedure, the alternative being revision surgery. Angioplasty uses an inflatable balloon of various diameters. Different types of angioplasty balloons may be needed to break fibrous venous stenosis, in particular high-pressure balloons or cutting balloons. These angioplasty procedures which are often painful during dilation have a high technical success rate but a poor 1-year patency rate.

These invasive repeated procedures impair the quality of life of these patients with end-stage renal disease who are on permanent dialysis or awaiting a kidney transplant and for whom vascular access patency is vital.

Due to their traumatic effect on the vessel wall, these procedures induce cell proliferation processes that retrigger neointimal hyperplasia the very act of preserving the haemodialysis access is the key factor in development of a new stenosis and hence a vicious circle of stenosis-angioplasty.

For the past few years, angioplasty balloons delivering anticancer drugs have been developed. These drugs, generally used in high doses for cancer chemotherapy, are released in small doses on the medical angioplasty devices. During inflation, the local release of the anticancer molecule through the different layers of the vessel wall confers local antiproliferative action without the systemic toxic effects associated with high-dose chemotherapy.

These medical devices have demonstrated their efficacy in terms of increase in primary and secondary patency rates on procedures such as coronary artery angioplasty, femoro-popliteal or sub-popliteal artery angioplasty.

These drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) are also CE marked with the recommendation of being indicated for AVF anticancerangioplasties, but no randomised multi-centre clinical trial has proven their medical effectiveness, and in particular their contribution in terms of patency rate improvement. However, studies on animal models show significant results regarding efficacy against neointimal hyperplasia and the first single-centre clinical trials on a small sample size appear promising.

The key assessment criterion is primary patency of the dilated stenosis at one year defined by patients efficaciously dialysed at one year without re-intervention on the dilated lesion after initial angioplasty. The delay of occurrence of dilation will be considered. Patients that will be non-evaluable for the primary endpointwill be censored at the date of the latest news.

Description

Dysfunctions such as tight stenosis or thrombosis in haemodialysis vascular accesses are the leading cause of hospitalisation (20%) and morbidity in chronic haemodialysis patients incurring significant related costs estimated at over one billion dollars in the USA.

Dysfunctions of these vascular accesses are generally treated by conventional angioplasty as this is the least invasive procedure, the alternative being revision surgery. Angioplasty uses an inflatable balloon of various diameters. Different types of angioplasty balloons may be needed to break fibrous venous stenosis, in particular high-pressure balloons (20 atm) or cutting balloons. These angioplasty procedures which are often painful during dilation have a high technical success rate (90-97%) but a poor 1-year patency rate, varying between 26 and 64% depending on the team and a mean rate estimated at 40% for the studies including the larger number of patients, some of whom requiring several procedures.

These invasive repeated procedures impair the quality of life of these patients with end-stage renal disease who are on permanent dialysis or awaiting a kidney transplant and for whom vascular access patency is vital.

Due to their traumatic effect on the vessel wall, these procedures induce cell proliferation processes that retrigger neointimal hyperplasia the very act of preserving the haemodialysis access is the key factor in development of a new stenosis and hence a vicious circle of stenosis-angioplasty.

For the past few years, angioplasty balloons delivering anticancer drugs (Paclitaxel, Sirolimus, Everolimus) have been developed. These drugs, generally used in high doses for cancer chemotherapy, are released in small doses on the medical angioplasty devices. During inflation, the local release of the anticancer (antimitotic) molecule through the different layers of the vessel wall (Paclitaxel is lipophilic and hydrophobic) confers local antiproliferative action without the systemic toxic effects associated with high-dose chemotherapy.

These medical devices have demonstrated their efficacy in terms of increase in primary and secondary patency rates on procedures such as coronary artery angioplasty, femoro-popliteal or sub-popliteal artery angioplasty (treatment of angina or lower limb arteriopathy).

These drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) are also CE marked with the recommendation of being indicated for AVF anticancerangioplasties, but no randomised multi-centre clinical trial has proven their medical effectiveness, and in particular their contribution in terms of patency rate improvement. However, studies on animal models show significant results regarding efficacy against neointimal hyperplasia and the first single-centre clinical trials on a small sample size appear promising.

The key assessment criterion is primary patency of the dilated stenosis at one year defined by patients efficaciously dialysed at one year without re-intervention on the dilated lesion after initial angioplasty. The delay of occurrence of dilation will be considered (censored criteria). Patients that will be non-evaluable for the primary endpoint (death, lost to follow-up) will be censored at the date of the latest news.

Details
Condition Stenosis of Arteriovenous Dialysis Fistula
Treatment Paclitaxel (Taxol) eluting angioplasty balloon, high-pressure angioplasty balloon, low-pressure balloon
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT02913274
SponsorRennes University Hospital
Last Modified on11 November 2021

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Age 18
Stage 5 renal failure patients on permanent haemodialysis treatment (every 2 or 3 days)
Native and efficient arteriovenous fistula > 3 months
mm reference vein diameter 8 mm and stenosis length 10 cm (range of DEB diameters and lengths)
Absence of fistula thrombosis
Possibility of crossing the stenosis with a guide wire
Significant stenosis > 50% (in relation to the reference diameter) on the fistulogram
Clinical diagnosis of imminent fistula dysfunction
pressure rise during dialysis
and/or puncture difficulties
and/or recirculation or poor extrarenal clearance
and/or decrease in vascular access flow
and/or increase in compression time after dialysis
Social security affiliation
Receipt of free, informed, written consent

Exclusion Criteria

Multiple stenoses
Goretex graft prostheses
Systemic or local infection
Known allergy to contrast agent or Paclitaxel
Comorbidity not permitting long-term follow-up
Life expectancy < 1 year
Anticancer treatment (patients treated with chemotherapy for neoplasia)
Pregnant or breastfeeding woman
Patients over 18 years of age who are under legal protection (conservatorship, trusteeship, guardianship), or deprived of freedom
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