Bevacizumab Alone Versus Dose-dense Temozolomide Followed by Bevacizumab for Recurrent Glioblastoma Phase III

  • End date
    Nov 10, 2025
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Kyorin University
Updated on 10 September 2021
stereotactic radiotherapy
measurable disease
karnofsky performance status
recurrent disease
recurrent glioblastoma
anaplastic astrocytoma
carmustine implant
astrocytoma, anaplastic
optic nerve
neutron capture therapy


The aim of this Phase III study is to evaluate the superiority of dose-dense temozolomide (ddTMZ) followed by bevacizumab at ddTMZ failure for glioblastoma at first recurrence or progression, comparing to bevacizumab alone.


Glioblastoma (GBM), the most frequent malignant primary brain tumor, has yet been incurable despite recent progress on its standard of care using TMZ as the main trunk of initial therapy in the newly diagnosed setting. One of the main reasons accounting for the dismal prognosis would attribute to lack of active therapeutic regimens at recurrence.

Bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against cardinal angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), has recently shown efficacy for recurrent GBM, and has been approved in Japan, thereby being a standard care for recurrent GBM. Since there is no effective drugs or regimens developed at bevacizumab failure, insertion of another active drug prior to bevacizumab induction would enhance survival time for patients with recurrent GBM.

In Japan, there are currently only few chemotherapeutic agents approved and available for GBM. Among them rechallenge with alternating dosing of TMZ have shown certain efficacy with acceptable toxicities for patients with TMZ-pretreated recurrent GBM, thus being a good candidate for the regimen used prior to bevacizumab at recurrence.

The present proposal of sequential administration of dose dense TMZ (7/14d) followed by bevacizumab wishes to define a new standard of care for recurrent disease and hopes to identify the subgroups of patients with progressive or recurrent glioblastoma that respond particularly well to dose-dense temozolomide regimens.

This study is carried out as a JCOG Brain Tumor Study Group multicenter randomized phase III trial under approval by Advanced Medical Care B system, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare, Japan.

Condition Relapse, Glioblastoma Multiforme, Disease Progression, course of illness, glioblastoma, relapse/recurrence
Treatment bevacizumab, Temozolomide
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT02761070
SponsorKyorin University
Last Modified on10 September 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Histologically proven diagnosis of glioblastoma (including giant cell glioblastoma and gliosarcoma) by WHO2007 criteria
For patients who did not undergo surgery for recurrent disease; pre-registration contrast MRI should confirm; (i)progressive or recurrent glioblastoma; (ii)no evidence of acute or subacute cerebral hemorrhage at enrolment; (iii)presence of a measurable lesion
For patients who underwent surgery for recurrent disease; (i)progressive or recurrent glioblastoma must be confirmed on contrast MRI before reoperation; (ii)glioblastoma or anaplastic astrocytoma must be histologically identified in the tissue resected at reoperation; (iii)presence of measurable lesions is not mandatory on pre-registration contrast MRI (more than 4 days after reoperation); (iv)no MRI evidence of aggravating cerebral hemorrhage
No evidence of tumors in the cerebellum, brain stem, optic nerve, olfactory nerve, and pituitary gland
No evidence of meningeal dissemination or gliomatosis cerebri
Prior treatment for newly-diagnosed glioblastoma (or diffuse astrocytoma (Grade II) or anaplastic astrocytoma (Grade III)) with postoperative TMZ administered concomitantly with radiotherapy (>=54 Gy for <=69 years old; >=30 Gy for >=70 years old) and at least for two cycles (5/28d) as an adjuvant treatment have been given
No history of prior treatment with stereotactic radiotherapy (ex. Gamma-knife/Cyberknife), proton beam irradiation, neutron capture therapy, and chemotherapies except standard dose TMZ and immunotherapy (vaccines, immune checkpoint inhibitors, antibodies etc.), bevacizumab (12 weeks or more after termination of prior upfront bevacizumab use) that were combined with TMZ, and intraoperative placement of carmustine wafers, for glioblastoma (including diffuse astrocytoma (Grade II) and anaplastic astrocytoma (Grade III) at onset) diagnosed with WHO2007 criteria
Time periods required from the last day of the prior treatment indicated at
Peptide vaccination, immune checkpoint inhibitors, antibodies: 4 weeks
Bevacizumab: 12 weeks
\. More than 90 days after completion of radiotherapy. For those who
underwent reoperation, between 21 and 28 days postoperatively
\. Age between 20 and 75 years at enrolment
\. Karnofsky Performance Status >= 60 within 14 days before enrolment
\. No prior treatment with chemotherapy, molecular targeted therapy, or
radiotherapy to head and neck area for other malignancies
\. Adequate organ function
\. Written informed consent

Exclusion Criteria

Synchronous or metachronous (within 5 years) malignancy, except for carcinoma in situ or mucosal tumors curatively treated with local therapy
Active infection requiring systemic therapy
Body temperature >= 38 degrees Celsius at registration
Women during pregnancy, possible pregnancy, within 28 days after delivery, or breast-feeding
Psychosis or with psychotic symptom
Continuous systemic use of immunosuppressant except for steroid
Uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
Unstable angina within 3 weeks, with a history of myocardial infarction within 6 months, or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II or greater congestive heart failure
Inadequately controlled hypertension (cannot be controlled to a systolic pressure of >= 150 mmHg and a diastolic pressure of >= 100 mmHg)
History of symptomatic cerebrovascular disorder (including subarachnoid hemorrhage, cerebral infarction and transient ischemic attack) within 6 months or history of vascular disorder requiring intervention (including venous/arterial thrombosis or embolism and aortic aneurysm) within 6 moths
History of grade >= 2 hemoptysis within 28 days
History of hemorrhagic tendency (e.g., coagulation disorder) or any grade >= 3 hemorrhage within 28 days
History of gastrointestinal perforation, fistula, abdominal abscess or uncontrolled peptic ulcer within 6 months
Interstitial pneumonia, pulmonary fibrosis, or severe lung emphysema
Severe non-healing wound or traumatic fracture at enrolment
Hypersensitivity to Chinese Hamster Ovary-derived drugs or other recombinant antibodies
Gadolinium allergy
Positive HIV antibody
Positive Hepatitis B (HB)s antigen
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