Metformin for the Minimization of Geographic Atrophy Progression in Patients With AMD

  • End date
    Dec 11, 2023
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    University of California, San Francisco
Updated on 11 May 2021
geographic atrophy
corrected visual acuity
pupillary dilation
age-related macular degeneration
macular degeneration
type ii diabetes


The purpose of this study is to determine whether metformin, an FDA-approved drug for the treatment of type II diabetes, is a safe and effective treatment to decrease the progression of geographic atrophy in non-diabetic patients with Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD).


This is a phase II, single-blind, randomized, evaluation of the safety and efficacy of metformin use to decrease geographic atrophy (GA) progression in non-diabetic patients with dry Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). Approximately 186 study subjects throughout four separate study sites will be randomized in a 1:1 ratio to the treatment group and the observation group. The treatment group will be assigned to the study intervention (oral Metformin) for 18 months while the observation group will receive no intervention for 18 months, instead continuing with standard of care ophthalmic exams and close monitoring of their disease. There will be one additional follow up visit at 24 months. Throughout the 24 month study period, the progression of subjects' GA or drusen growth will be measured via ocular imaging taken at standard of care follow-up examinations, including fundus autofluorescence imaging, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fundus photography.

Condition Dry Macular Degeneration, age-related macular degeneration, Macular Degeneration, Geographic Atrophy
Treatment Metformin
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT02684578
SponsorUniversity of California, San Francisco
Last Modified on11 May 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Subject must be >/= 55 years of age
Subject must have evidence of advanced dry AMD, defined by the characteristic presence of drusen and/or pigmentary changes as well as geographic atrophy
Subject must have clear ocular media and adequate pupillary dilation
Subject must be able to swallow capsules
Study eye must have best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of 20/20-20/400
Subject must be willing and able to pay for monthly prescription of Metformin HCl for 18 months in the event that their insurance carrier will not cover the cost of the drug

Exclusion Criteria

Subjects with insufficient baseline size of geographic atrophy, less than 1.25 mm2 (0.5 Macular Photocoagulation Study Disc Areas). GA is defined as one or more well-defined and often circular patches of partial or complete depigmentation of the RPE, typically with exposure of underlying choroidal blood vessels. Even if much of the RPE appears to be preserved and large choroidal vessels are not visible, a round patch of RPE partial depigmentation may be classified as early GA. The GA in the study eye must be able to be photographed in its entirety, and it must not be contiguous with any areas of peripapillary atrophy, which can complicate area measurements
Subjects who are already taking metformin for another purpose
Subjects with type 1 or 2 diabetes
Subjects with compromised kidney function
Serum creatinine 1.5 mg/dL for males and 1.4 mg/dL for females
Subjects with moderate to severe heart failure (Class III or IV, New York Heart Association Functional Classifications)
Subjects with Child's class C cirrhosis
Evidence of retinal atrophy due to causes other than atrophic AMD
Subjects who have had anti-VEGF injections or active choroidal neovascularization in the study eye during the last 12 months
Current evidence or history of ocular disorders in the study eye that in the opinion of the investigator confounds study outcome measures, including (but not limited to)
Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy involving 10 or more hemorrhages or microaneurysms, or active proliferative diabetic retinopathy
Branch or central retinal vein or artery occlusion
Macular hole
Pathologic myopia
Pseudovitelliform maculopathy
Intraoperative surgery within the last 90 days prior to study eye enrollment
Clear my responses

How to participate?

Step 1 Connect with a site
What happens next?
  • You can expect the study team to contact you via email or phone in the next few days.
  • Sign up as volunteer to help accelerate the development of new treatments and to get notified about similar trials.

You are contacting

Investigator Avatar

Primary Contact


Preferred Language
Other Language
Please verify that you are not a bot.

Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

Learn more

If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

Learn more

Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

Learn more

Similar trials to consider


Browse trials for

Not finding what you're looking for?

Every year hundreds of thousands of volunteers step forward to participate in research. Sign up as a volunteer and receive email notifications when clinical trials are posted in the medical category of interest to you.

Sign up as volunteer

user name

Added by • 



Reply by • Private

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet consectetur, adipisicing elit. Ipsa vel nobis alias. Quae eveniet velit voluptate quo doloribus maxime et dicta in sequi, corporis quod. Ea, dolor eius? Dolore, vel!

  The passcode will expire in None.

No annotations made yet

Add a private note
  • abc Select a piece of text from the left.
  • Add notes visible only to you.
  • Send it to people through a passcode protected link.
Add a private note