Last updated on May 2020

A Pilot Study of Combined Immune Checkpoint Inhibition in Combination With Ablative Therapies in Subjects With Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC) or Biliary Tract Carcinomas (BTC)


Brief description of study

BACKGROUND
  • Various tumor ablative procedures and techniques have been shown to result in immunogenic cell death and induction of a peripheral immune response. The term ablative therapies applies to trans-arterial catheter chemoembolization (TACE), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cryoablation (CA).
  • The underlying hypothesis of this study is that the effect of immune checkpoint inhibition can be enhanced by TACE, CA and RFA in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and biliary tract carcinomas (BTC). We have already demonstrated proof of principle as well as safety and feasibility of this approach with anti-CTLA4 therapy.
  • Based on the concept of PDL1-mediated adaptive resistance and the emerging role of PD1 therapy in HCC, we would like to evaluate the combination of tremelimumab and durvalumab (with ablative therapies) in HCC and BTC.
    Objectives
  • To preliminarily evaluate the 6-month progression free survival (PFS) of combining tremelimumab and durvalumab in patients with advanced HCC (either alone or with cryoablation, TACE or RFA) and in patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) (either alone or with cryoablation or RFA).
    ELIGIBILITY
  • Histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of HCC or biliary tract carcinoma OR histopathological confirmation of carcinoma in the setting of clinical and radiological characteristics which, together with the pathology, are highly suggestive of a diagnosis of HCC (or biliary tract carcinoma).
  • Childs-Pugh A/B7 cirrhosis only is allowed. If patient does not have cirrhosis, this limitation does not apply.
  • Patients must have disease that is not amenable to potentially curative resection, radiofrequency ablation, or liver transplantation.
    DESIGN

We will evaluate the combination of tremelimumab and durvalumab (with ablative therapies) in cohorts A (HCC; N=40) and B (BTC; N=30). The first N=10 patients in both cohorts will receive tremelimumab and durvalumab only (i.e. No interventional radiologic procedures).

  • A: Advanced HCC, BCLC# Stage B/C
  • N= 1st 10 pts: No ablative procedure Cryoablation/RFA/TACE##
  • Tremelimumab 75mg flat dose q28 days for 4 doses; Durvalumab 1500mg flat dose q28 days until EOS###
  • 40 total: 10 trem+ dur alone; 10 trem+ dur + TACE; 10 trem + dur + RFA; 10 trem + dur + cryo
  • B: Intra/extra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma
  • N= 1st 10 pts: No ablative procedure; RFA/ cryoablation
  • Tremelimumab 75mg flat dose q28 days for 4 doses; Durvalumab 1500mg flat dose q28 days until EOS###
  • 30 total: 10 trem+ dur alone; 10 trem + dur + RFA; 10 trem
  • BCLC = Barcelona clinic liver cancer staging system
  • For BCLC stage B patients TACE may be repeated as per standard of care
  • EOS = End of study treatment or meeting any of the off-treatment or off study criteria.

Detailed Study Description

BACKGROUND
  • Various tumor ablative procedures and techniques have been shown to result in immunogenic cell death and induction of a peripheral immune response. The term ablative therapies applies to trans-arterial catheter chemoembolization (TACE), radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and cryoablation (CA).
  • The underlying hypothesis of this study is that the effect of immune checkpoint inhibition can be enhanced by TACE, CA and RFA in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and biliary tract carcinomas (BTC). We have already demonstrated proof of principle as well as safety and feasibility of this approach with anti-CTLA4 therapy.
  • Based on the concept of PDL1-mediated adaptive resistance and the emerging role of PD1 therapy in HCC, we would like to evaluate the combination of tremelimumab and durvalumab (with ablative therapies) in HCC and BTC.
    Objectives
  • To preliminarily evaluate the 6-month progression free survival (PFS) of combining tremelimumab and durvalumab in patients with advanced HCC (either alone or with cryoablation, TACE or RFA) and in patients with advanced biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) (either alone or with cryoablation or RFA).
    ELIGIBILITY
  • Histologically or cytologically confirmed diagnosis of HCC or biliary tract carcinoma OR histopathological confirmation of carcinoma in the setting of clinical and radiological characteristics which, together with the pathology, are highly suggestive of a diagnosis of HCC (or biliary tract carcinoma).
  • Childs-Pugh A/B7 cirrhosis only is allowed. If patient does not have cirrhosis, this limitation does not apply.
  • Patients must have disease that is not amenable to potentially curative resection, radiofrequency ablation, or liver transplantation.
    DESIGN

We will evaluate the combination of tremelimumab and durvalumab (with ablative therapies) in cohorts A1 (HCC; Barcelona clinic liver cancer staging system (BCLC) stage C; N=10), A2 (HCC; BCLC stages B/C; N=30) and B (BTC; N=30). The patients in cohort A1 and first 10 patients in cohort B will receive tremelimumab and durvalumab only (i.e. no interventional radiologic procedures).

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT02821754

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