Trial to Test the Effects of Adding 1 of 2 New Treatment Agents to Commonly Used Chemotherapy Combinations

  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Cardiff University
Updated on 19 May 2022
myeloid leukemia
flow cytometry
residual tumor
secondary acute myeloid leukemia
blast cells
gemtuzumab ozogamicin
myelodysplastic syndrome with excess blasts-2
high risk myelodysplastic syndrome


The AML18 Trial will evaluate several relevant therapeutic questions in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML), as defined by the WHO, and High Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome. The trial is primarily designed for patients over 60 years considered fit for an intensive chemotherapeutic approach, but younger patients who may not be considered suitable for the concurrent NCRI AML Trial for younger patients may also enter. Patients for whom intensive chemotherapy is not thought suitable may enter the concurrent NCRI trial of less intensive therapy (LI1). Approximately 1600 patients will be recruited.

At entry, a randomisation will compare a standard chemotherapy schedule DA (Daunorubicin/Ara-C) combined with 1 dose of Mylotarg (gemtuzumab ozogamicin, or GO) in course 1 against CPX-351. Patients who have known adverse risk cytogenetics (using Grimwade 2010 classification favourable/intermediate/adverse) at diagnosis may enter a Phase 2 evaluation of the combination of Vosaroxin plus Decitabine. Patients who achieve complete remission (CR) and who are MRD negative by flow cytometry after course one of DA will receive one further course of DA, with a randomisation to receive, either a course of DA or intermediate dose Cytarabine (IDAC) as a third course. Patients who are MRD negative by flow cytometry after course one of CPX-351 will receive up to 2 further course of CPX. Patients who fail to achieve a CR after course 1 of DA or who are MRD positive by flow cytometry or for whom MRD information is not available, are eligible to be randomised to compare DA with DA plus Cladribine (DAC) or FLAG-Ida for up to two courses of therapy. Patients who fail to achieve a CR after course 1 of CPX-351 or who are MRD positive by flow cytometry or for whom MRD information is not available are eligible to be randomised between a second course of standard dose CPX versus a repeat of the course 1 schedule. Patients receiving Vosaroxin and Decitabine are excluded from these post course 1 randomisations .

Following the outcome of course 1, patients who received DA chemotherapy on course 1 will be randomised to receive further chemotherapy with the 2nd generation FLT3 inhibitor AC220. Patients randomised to AC220 will be allocated a maximum of 3 courses (short AC220) or 3 courses plus maintenance for 1 year (long AC220). Patients receiving Vosaroxin and Decitabine are excluded from this randomisation.

Patients will be eligible for a non-intensive allogeneic stem cell transplant if a suitable HLA matched donor is available.


AML18 is a trial primarily for older patients with AML and high risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS). It offers a randomised controlled Phase II/III trial which uses a factorial design for maximum efficiency to evaluate two induction options followed by treatment with small molecule beyond course 1, and dose intensification for patients without evidence of MRD negativity.

There are five randomised comparisons within the trial:

  1. At diagnosis:

For patients not known to have adverse risk cytogenetics DA chemotherapy plus a single dose of 3 mg/m2 of Mylotarg versus CPX-351. Patients with abnormal LFTs can enter the randomisation but receive DA alone or CPX-351.

2. For patients who received DA chemotherapy but are not in CR or who are MRD +ve, or for whom MRD is not assessable.

DA versus DAC versus FLAG-Ida

3. All patients at second course who have received DA and have not received Vosaroxin and Decitabine induction AC220 versus no AC220 for a maximum of 3 cycles; then with or without maintenance for 1 year for patients allocated AC220

4. For patients who are in CR or CRi and MRD -ve post course1 and have completed 2 courses of DA DA versus intermediate dose Cytarabine (IDAC)

5. For patients who received CPX-351 chemotherapy but are not in CR or who are MRD +ve, or for whom MRD is not assessable CPX-351 100 units/m2 x 3 doses versus CPX-351 100 units/m2 x 2 doses

The trial will also assess:

  • Non-intensive allogeneic stem cell transplant for patients with matched sibling or matched unrelated donors.
  • The combination of Vosaroxin and Decitabine for those with known adverse risk cytogenetics at diagnosis

Condition Bone marrow disorder, Bone marrow disorder, Preleukemia, Acute myeloid leukemia, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), Acute myeloid leukemia, MYELODYSPLASTIC SYNDROME, Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS), Myelodysplastic Syndromes (MDS), Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), myelodysplastic syndromes, myelodysplastic syndrome (mds), acute myelogenous leukemia, anll, acute myeloblastic leukemia
Treatment Ganetespib, Arm A Mylotarg, Arm D Cladribine, AC220, Arm A Mylotarg plus DA Versus CPX-351, Arm B Vosaroxin and Decitabine, Arm D Small molecule or Not, Arm C DA V FLAG-Ida V DAC, Arm E CPX-351 (200 V 300), Arm F DA V IDAC
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT02272478
SponsorCardiff University
Last Modified on19 May 2022

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