Last updated on February 2018

Beneficial Impact of Orange Juice Consumption on Risk Factors Associated With Cardiovascular Diseases

Brief description of study

The primary aim is to examine both the acute and chronic effects of hesperidin consumption from 100% Florida orange juice in various doses on functional and systemic markers associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks.

Detailed Study Description

The aim of this study is to compare the effect of different doses of hesperidin in 100% Florida orange juice (OJ) when regularly or postprandially consumed on cardiovascular risk markers; in addition, the plausible role and mechanism of the hesperidin will be investigated.

The sample size was calculated using a previously available bibliography using systolic blood pressure (SBP) as the primary outcome measure. A total of 84 subjects per study product group were needed, assuming variance components of approximately 20.0, to detect differences between the three groups (control, orange juice and hesperidin-enriched orange juice (10 mm Hg)) with a bilateral significance level of =0.05 and a power of 80 %.

The sample size was computed to be sufficient to detect differences between treatment groups regarding the evolution in time of SBP levels. Justification of chosen sample size is based on the clinically meaningful difference assigned to =10.0 mm Hg, which is equivalent to a difference of approximately 7.4 % in patients with baseline SBP levels of approximately 135 mm Hg. Thus, a sample of 252 participants can be used for the chronic three arm parallel trial design (84 subjects/arm) and will allow us to detect small but clinically relevant differences between the three groups with statistical robustness and direct interpretation in terms of the chronic treatment effect.

To the acute postprandial tests, the investigators have chosen n=20 subjects per arm according to the most studies that have addressed the metabolic effects of a postprandial intervention have been performed using a very similar number of subjects with statistically good quality results.

The statistical analysis will follow the principles specified in the guidelines of the ICHE9 and CPMP/EWP/908/99 ICHE9 Points to Consider on Multiplicity Issues in Clinical Trials.

The continuous efficacy variables will be analyzed by an ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) with the baseline value as a covariate.

The efficacy outcomes will be determined using the absolute values and absolute differences from the baseline. The efficacy analysis will be performed using the Available Data Only approach. In addition, the analysis of the primary efficacy variable will be performed with the Baseline Observation Carried Forward approach.

A suitable hypothesis test will be applied to the rest of the variables according to the nature of each variable, such as the Fisher exact test for categorical variables, Student's T-test for continuous variables and Mann-Whitney U test for ordinal scale variables.

The statistical tests will be applied with an =0.05 two-sided significance level. Post-hoc analyses and comparisons between pairs of groups will be done as for exploratory purposes.

In addition, the statistical plan will be transferred to the application form of the electronic data collection report (e-CDR), which allows the improvement of data management, diminishes human errors (according threshold values of each outcome) and, overall, guarantees the maximum exploitation of human data in the context of statistical analysis.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT02479568

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