8-Chloroadenosine in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  • End date
    Dec 17, 2021
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    City of Hope Medical Center
Updated on 5 February 2021
graft versus host disease
myeloid leukemia
hematologic malignancy
induction chemotherapy
refractory acute myeloid leukemia (aml)


This phase I/II trial studies the side effects and best dose of 8-chloroadenosine and to see how well it works in treating patients with acute myeloid leukemia that has returned after a period of improvement (relapsed) or does not respond to treatment (refractory). Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as 8-chloroadenosine, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading.



I. To determine the maximum tolerated dose (recommended phase II dose, RP2D) of 8-chloro-adenosine, when given as a single agent, in patients with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia. (Phase I) II. To assess tolerability and safety of 8-chloro-adenosine at each dose level by evaluation of toxicities including: type, frequency, severity, attribution, time course and duration. (Phase I) III. To estimate the response rate and to evaluate the antitumor activity of 8-chloro-adenosine, when given as a single agent, as assessed by complete remission rate (complete remission [CR] + complete remission with incomplete blood count recovery [CRi]). (Phase II)


I. To evaluate for disease response to 8-chloro-adenosine in refractory/relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) on each dose level tested. (Phase I) II. To obtain estimates of remission duration and survival probabilities (overall and event-free). (Phase II) III. To obtain an estimate of the overall response rate (CR + CRi + partial response [PR]). (Phase II) IV. To summarize and evaluate toxicities by type, frequency, severity, attribution, time course and duration. (Phase II)


I. To describe the plasma, urinary and cellular pharmacokinetics of 8-chloro-adenosine and metabolites.

II. To determine the impact of 8-chloro-adenosine on cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) pool in AML blasts.

III. To assess the impact of 8-chloro-adenosine therapy on select short-lived messenger (m) ribonucleic acids (RNAs) and corresponding proteins in circulating AML blasts.

IV. To correlate clinical responses and toxicity with plasma/urine 8-chloro-adenosine level (pharmacokinetic [PK]), cellular 8-chloro-ATP (PK) and cellular ATP pool.


I. To determine the cytotoxicity of 8-chloro-adenosine toward leukemic progenitor cells in vitro.

II. To generate a preliminary pre-treatment RNA/micro RNA (miRNA) signature in leukemic progenitor cells, and explore its possible association with in vitro cytotoxicity to 8-chloro-adenosine.

III. To explore the possible association between the preliminary RNA/miRNA signature and clinical response to 8-chloro-adenosine.

OUTLINE: This is a phase I, dose-escalation study followed by a phase II study.

Patients receive 8-chloro-adenosine intravenously (IV) over 4 hours on days 1-5. Treatment repeats every 28 days for up to 4 courses in the absence of disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up at 30 days and then every 3 months for up to 2 years.

Condition Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Refractory Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Relapsed Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia, Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myeloproliferative Disorder, Recurrent Acute Myeloid Leukemia, AML/MDS, refractory acute myeloid leukemia (aml)
Treatment laboratory biomarker analysis, pharmacological study, 8-chloro-adenosine, 8-Chloroadenosine
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT02509546
SponsorCity of Hope Medical Center
Last Modified on5 February 2021


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Inclusion Criteria

Is your age greater than or equal to 18 yrs?
Gender: Male or Female
Do you have any of these conditions: Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myelodysplastic Syndrome or Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myeloproliferative Disorder or R...?
Do you have any of these conditions: Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myeloproliferative Disorder or AML/MDS or refractory acute myeloid leukemia (aml) or Refractory Acute Mye...?
Do you have any of these conditions: AML/MDS or Acute Myeloid Leukemia Arising From Previous Myeloproliferative Disorder or Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia or refractory acute myel...?
All subjects must have the ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent
Patients must have a life expectancy of > 3 months
Patients must exhibit an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0-2
Patients must have a diagnosis of AML as per World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Hematologic Neoplasms
Patients must meet one of the three treatment history criteria
Relapsed AML who have failed at least 1 line of salvage therapy
De novo AML who have not achieved CR after 2 lines of therapy
AML evolving from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or myeloproliferative disorder who have failed hypomethylating agent or induction chemotherapy
Patients who have relapsed after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) are eligible if they are at least 3 months after HCT, do not have active graft vs. host disease (GVHD) and are off immunosuppression except for maintenance dose of steroids (prednisone 10 mg/day or less)
At least 2 weeks from prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy to time of start of treatment, except for hydroxyurea or corticosteroid therapy which may be continued through cycle 1
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) =< 2.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN)
Total bilirubin =< 1.5 X ULN
Corrected QT (QTc) =< 480 ms
Calculated creatinine clearance (CrCl) >= 50 mL/min per 24 hour urine collection or the Cockcroft-Gault formula
Negative serum or urine beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-HCG) test (female of childbearing potential only), to be performed locally within the screening period
Agreement by females of childbearing potential and sexually active males to use an effective method of contraception (hormonal or barrier method of birth control or abstinence) prior to study entry and for three months following duration of study participation; the effects of study treatment on a developing fetus have the potential for teratogenic or abortifacient effects; should a woman become pregnant or suspect that she is pregnant while participating on the trial, she should inform her treating physician immediately

Exclusion Criteria

Current or planned use of other investigational agents, or concurrent biological chemotherapy, or radiation therapy during the study treatment period
Expected to undergo HCT within 120 days of enrollment
Current or planned use of agents that prolong or suspected to prolong QTc
Diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia
Active central nervous system leukemia
Active fungal infection or bacterial sepsis
Active peptic ulcer disease
History of heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia
Other active malignancy except for localized skin cancer, bladder, prostate, breast or cervical carcinoma in situ
Pregnant women and women who are lactating; 8-chloro-adenosine is an agent with the potential for teratogenic or abortifacient effects; because there is an unknown but potential risk for adverse events in nursing infants secondary to treatment of the mother with 8-chloro-adenosine, breastfeeding should be discontinued if the mother is treated with 8-chloro-adenosine
Any other condition that would, in the investigator's judgment, contraindicate the patient's participation in the clinical study due to safety concerns or compliance with clinical study procedures
Prospective participants who, in the opinion of the investigator, may not be able to comply with all study procedures (including compliance issues related to feasibility/logistics)
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