Last updated on November 2019

Safety of a Boost (CXB or EBRT) in Combination With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy for Early Rectal Adenocarcinoma


Brief description of study

The investigators propose to conduct a randomised study on cT2, cT3a-b tumours less than 5 cm using two different techniques of radiotherapy boost following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) (CAP45): EBRT (9 Gy/5 fractions) or CXB (90 Gy/3 fractions). The endpoint will be organ preservation at 3 years without non-salvageable local pelvic recurrence. The proof of this concept will be of most benefit for all patients but especially for the elderly who usually are not fit for or keen to undergo major surgery.

The hypothesis of this study is to determine whether the addition of an endocavitary boost with CXB after standard treatment with nCRT, increases the chance of rectum and anus preservation by 20%-unites in early rectal adenocarcinoma without locally progressive disease (organ preservation in control arm 20%, in experimental arm 40%).

Main objective To demonstrate that neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in combination with a boost given with CXB (Arm B) is superior to the same neoadjuvant therapy plus a boost with EBRT alone (Arm A) in terms of rectum (organ) preservation without non salvageable local disease at 3 years post treatment start, or permanent deviating stoma.

Study Design Open-label, phase III, prospective, multi-centre, international, randomised 1:1, 2 arm study designed to evaluate the efficacy of a CXB boost versus an EBRT boost.

Detailed Study Description

Rationale - current state of knowledge Current guidelines for cT2-T3 (clinical stage T2 and T3) low and middle rectal cancer recommend radical total mesorectal excision (TME) surgery that may involves permanent stoma or a low anterior resection with sometimes poor bowel function.

Randomised trials have shown that neoadjuvant (chemo)radiotherapy (nCRT) reduces the risk of local recurrence by more than half. At 3 years, it is close to or below 5% with acceptable toxicity at many centers. On the other hand, it provides no definite improvement in overall survival and does not increase the chances of conservative surgery.

Rectal adenocarcinoma is rather radioresistant and the dose required to achieve 50% sterilization is close to 90 grays (Gy), which is a high dose causing toxicities when given with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). Among the radiotherapy techniques able to achieve safely such a high dose, Contact X-Ray Brachytherapy 50 Kv (CXB) is an appealing method.

The Lyon R96-2 randomised trial using CXB showed an increased clinical complete response (cCR) rate from 2% to 29% and an improvement by 30% the chance of avoiding a permanent stoma (72% vs. 42%). In addition, some patients achieving cCR were able to preserve not only the sphincter but the whole rectum (organ preservation) either after local excision or using only a "watch and wait" strategy.

Such a conservative approach is receiving a growing interest all over the world among colorectal cancer specialists. The extensive and pioneering work of Prof. Habr Gama in Brazil is presently considered as a reference for the use chemoradiotherapy and an EBRT boost (total dose 54 Gy/30 f/6 weeks) followed by watch and wait in case of cCR to preserve organ, i.E. to avoid surgery.

Research Hypothesis The investigators propose to conduct a randomised study on cT2, cT3a-b tumours less than 5 cm using two different techniques of radiotherapy boost following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) (CAP45): EBRT (9 Gy/5 fractions) or CXB (90 Gy/3 fractions). The endpoint will be organ preservation at 3 years without non-salvageable local pelvic recurrence. The proof of this concept will be of most benefit for all patients but especially for the elderly who usually are not fit for or keen to undergo major surgery.

The hypothesis of this study is to determine whether the addition of an endocavitary boost with CXB after standard treatment with nCRT, increases the chance of rectum and anus preservation by 20%-unites in early rectal adenocarcinoma without locally progressive disease (organ preservation in control arm 20%, in experimental arm 40%).

Main objective To demonstrate that neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in combination with a boost given with CXB (Arm B) is superior to the same neoadjuvant therapy plus a boost with EBRT alone (Arm A) in terms of rectum (organ) preservation without non salvageable local disease at 3 years post treatment start, or permanent deviating stoma.

Study Design Open-label, phase III, prospective, multi-centre, international, randomised 1:1, 2 arm study designed to evaluate the efficacy of a CXB boost versus an EBRT boost.

Randomisation

Arm A: 3D conformal EBRT 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction/5 weeks) with concurrent chemotherapy using capecitabine (825 mg/m2 bid, on radiation days).

A cone down EBRT targeting the Gross Tumour Volume (GTV) will deliver a boost dose of 9 Gy in 5 fractions. On week 14 after the start of treatment, the tumour response evaluation will guide the final strategy: surgery (radical TME or local excision) or watch-and-wait (W-W).

Arm B divided in 2 subgroups depending on the tumour diameter:

B1: If the tumour is < 3 cm, a CXB boost dose (90Gy/3 fractions/4 weeks) will be initially delivered to the tumour. After 2 weeks rest, patients will receive 3D conformal EBRT 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction/5 weeks) with concurrent chemotherapy using capecitabine (825 mg/m2 bid, on radiation days). Clinical evaluation will be performed 3 weeks after the end of irradiation (week 14) and will guide the final strategy (surgery or W-W) as in arm A.

B2: If the tumour is 3 cm, patients will receive EBRT first 45 Gy (1.8 Gy/fraction/5 weeks) with concurrent chemotherapy using capecitabine (825 mg/m2 bid, on radiation days).

A CXB boost dose (90 Gy/3 fractions/4 weeks) will be delivered to residual tumour, after a rest of 2 weeks. On week 14 after the start of treatment, the tumour response evaluation will guide the final strategy (surgery or W-W) as in arm A. Adjuvant chemotherapy will be left to institution choice.

Number of subjects: Taking alpha=5% and bta=7.5% with 10% patients not evaluable after randomisation, 236 patients (118 patients/arm) must be enrolled to show a 50% increase in the main endpoint at 3 years (from 20% to 40%).This study will show a hazard ratio of 0.56. Stopping rule: non-salvageable local recurrence rate > 10% checked by the independent Data Monitoring Committee every 80 patients.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT02505750

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Institut de Canc rologie Lucien Neuwirth

Saint-Priest en Jarez, France
0.46miles
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Recruitment Status: Open


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