Oral Bacteria and Immune System Problems Involved in Gum Disease (Periodontitis)

  • STATUS
    Recruiting
  • participants needed
    700
  • sponsor
    National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Updated on 28 October 2021
x-rays
periodontitis
tooth loss
osteopenia
severe periodontal disease
gum disease
severe periodontitis
Accepts healthy volunteers

Summary

Background
  • Gum disease is a condition in which the tissue around the tooth root becomes swollen and infected. This condition can cause tooth loss if it is not treated. Who gets gum disease and how bad it will be depends on (1) the different bacteria in the mouth and (2) how the immune system of an individual handles these bacteria. Researchers want to look at the oral bacteria and genetic immune problems of different people to learn how these affect gum disease and other conditions of the mouth.
    Objectives
  • To study how immune system problems may lead to problems in the mouth, including gum disease.
    Eligibility
  • Children and adults at least 7 years of age who have genetic problems with their immune system.
  • Healthy adults that have periodontal disease
  • Health adults that do not have periodontal disease
    Design
  • This study will involve a screening visit and a study visit.
  • Participants will be screened with a medical history, blood work and a full oral and dental exam, including dental x-rays and photos.
  • The study visit will involve collection of blood, urine, and other samples, including saliva, plaque, and gum swabs. Any abnormal tissue will sampled for a biopsy. Additional oral and dental exams will be performed. Participants will also answer questions about any current medical or dental problems.

Description

This is a cross sectional/natural history protocol designed to investigate the clinical,

microbiologic, and immunologic consequences of genetic immune defects in the oral cavity. The hypothesis is that genetic immune defects will lead to alterations in the local immune response and microbial colonization and ultimately predispose to susceptibility to oral infections and inflammatory conditions.

In the cross-sectional phase the following individuals will be enrolled, evaluated and screened for presence and severity of periodontitis, presence of a genetic defects and sampled for studies in oral immunity and microbiome: 1) individuals diagnosed with genetic immune defects 2) individuals with severe periodontitis of suspected genetic etiology and their family members 3) healthy volunteers. Subjects identified with a genetic immune defect and with presence of oral disease (primarily periodontitis) may enter the natural history phase of the study to be clinically followed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) over time. This protocol aims to determine whether specific genetic immune defects will predispose to oral disease (primarily periodontitis) and to better understand consequences of immune deficiency on the oral immune response and microbiome.

Primary Objectives

  1. Investigate the degree, scope, etiology and natural history of oral manifestations in patients with genetic immune defects.
  2. Characterize the immune response in the oral cavity of patients with genetic immune defects.
  3. Characterize the microbiome in the oral cavity of patients with genetic immune defects.

Secondary Objectives

  1. Assay development/validation for the study of tissue immunity and microbiome characterization
  2. Establishment of normative values for immune mediators and microbial elements at the oral cavity

Study Population (s)

The study population will include:

  1. Subjects with genetic immune defects
  2. Subjects with severe periodontitis of suspected genetic etiology and their family members
  3. Healthy volunteers (with/without periodontal disease)

Design

This is a cross-sectional/natural history study for the evaluation of clinical, immunologic, and microbiologic oral manifestations (primarily periodontitis) in patients diagnosed with genetic immune defects or those with severe periodontitis of suspected genetic etiology and healthy volunteer subjects.

Cross Sectional Phase: Three groups of subjects will be enrolled in the cross-sectional phase of the study 1) individuals diagnosed with genetic immune defects 2) individuals with severe periodontitis of suspected genetic etiology and their family members that include parents or siblings 3) healthy volunteers (with/without periodontal disease). All groups will be evaluated for oral disease (periodontitis) and sampled for oral immunity, systemic immunity and microbiome characterization. Individuals with severe periodontitis in the presence/absence of a genetic defect may be offered the option of receiving standard of care inflammatory control periodontal treatment at NIH without travel compensation, following the cross-sectional portion of the study. Family members (parents or siblings) of individuals with periodontal disease of suspected genetic may be asked to participate in this study. During the course of genetic testing, family members may be enrolled in the cross sectional phase of the study for phenotyping and genetic testing.

Natural History Phase: Subjects identified with a genetic defect with the presence of oral disease may enroll in the natural history phase of the study to be followed clinically over time.

Primary Outcome Measures

  1. Clinical intraoral characterization (i.e., presence and severity of periodontitis).
  2. Characterize the immune response in the oral cavity of patients with genetic immune defects
  3. Characterize the microbiome in the oral cavity of patients with genetic immune defects

Secondary Outcome Measures

  1. Assay development/validation for the study of tissue immunity and microbiome characterization
  2. Establishment of normative values for immune mediators and microbial elements at the oral cavity

Exploratory Outcome Measures

Initial data from this study may generate new hypotheses for investigation as part of this study.

Details
Condition Immunosuppression, Periodontal disease, Immunosuppression, Diet and Nutrition, Chronic Diarrhea, Skin Wounds, Chronic Shoulder Pain, Vaginal Atrophy, Adverse Effects, Drugs, Injection Port, Breast Cancer - HER2 Positive, Anal Dysplasia, Primary Immunodeficiency, Pediatric Health, Near-Sighted Corrective Surgery, Healthy Volunteer, Peripheral Arterial Occlusive Disease, Healthy Subjects, Brain Function, Recurrent Respiratory Papillomatosis, Razor Bumps (Pseudofolliculitis Barbae), Metastatic Triple-Negative Breast Cancer, immunosuppressive therapy, immune suppression
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT01568697
SponsorNational Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR)
Last Modified on28 October 2021

Eligibility

Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Patients with Genetic Immune Defects
Patients with an established monogenic immune defect will be eligible for screening inclusion under this protocol
Diagnosis of monogenic immune defect
Greater than or equal to 7 years old
Severe Periodontitis of Suspected Genetic Etiology and Family Members
History of severe periodontitis prior to age <30
Willing to allow genetic testing
Greater than or equal to 7 years old
In good general health
Healthy Volunteer Subjects
In good general health
Greater than or equal to 18 years old
Willing to allow genetic testing
Have a minimum of 20 natural teeth
Inclusion Criteria for Natural History phase, all subjects
Diagnosis of genetic immune defect
Presence of oral manifestation (primarily periodontitis)
Inclusion Criteria for standard of care treatment
Active untreated disease (visible signs of tissue inflammation including erythema/edema, generalized bleeding upon probing)
Periodontal disease defined as bone loss of >5mm as measured on
periodontal exam

Exclusion Criteria

All Subjects
History of Hepatitis B or C
History of HIV
Prior radiation therapy to the head or neck
Have an active malignancy except localized basal or squamous cell carcinoma of the skin
Have been treated with systemic chemotherapeutics or radiation therapy within 5 years of screening
Pregnant or lactating
If participation in the protocol would not be safe or in the subject s best interest in the opinion of either the PI or the primary medical team
Additional Exclusions for Healthy Volunteers
Diagnosis of diabetes and/or HbA1C level >6%
More than 3 hospitalizations in the last 3years
Have an autoimmune disorder such as Lupus, Rheumatoid arthritis, etc
In the 3 months before study enrollment, have used any of the following
Systemic (intravenous, intramuscular, or oral) antibiotics
Oral, intravenous, intramuscular, intranasal, or inhaled corticosteroids or other immunosuppressants (e.g., cyclosporine)
Cytokine therapy
Methotrexate or immunosuppressive chemotherapeutic agents
Large doses of commercial probiotics (greater than or equal to 10(8) colony-forming units or organisms per day); includes tablets, capsules, lozenges, chewing gum, or powders in which a probiotic is a primary component; ordinary dietary components such as fermented beverages/milks, yogurts, and foods do not apply
Have used tobacco products (including e-cigarettes) within 1 year of screening
Unwillingness to consent to oral biopsy
NIH employees working in the Oral Immunity and Inflammation Unit and members of the Clinical Research Core Team will not be eligible for enrollment
Additional Exclusions for Healthy Volunteers with Periodontal Disease
Mild/moderate non-active disease (absence of active inflammatory lesions)
Subjects with urgent/complex restorative needs (ex. severe active carious lesions/fractured dentition)
Subjects in need for advance periodontal care (including bone/tissue grafts/implants)
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Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

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