Validation of an Integrated Attention Model for Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

  • End date
    Dec 31, 2028
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran
Updated on 22 January 2021
chronic disease
diabetic complication


Abstract: Empowerment interventions for chronic diseases are an evolving process. No agreement exists regarding the necessary components and methodologies to be applied. Systematic reviews have assessed the effect of self-management interventions. Improvements in illness beliefs, adherence to drug therapy and glucose monitoring have been reported. In the long term, no major changes have been achieved in weight, physical activity, smoking status, and depression scores.

There is a need for additional studies. The Center for Comprehensive Care of Patients with Diabetes (CAIPaDi) program is an intervention designed to provide education and empowerment techniques (using simple low-cost interactive tools) over a short period of time followed by at-distance support using internet or cell phone technology. The target population consists of patients with type 2 diabetes, free of chronic complications who are non-smokers. The intervention is composed of four monthly visits followed by a continuous at-distance support system. At each visit, patients stay for six hours in the center. Information is presented in group sessions. Empowerment techniques are applied during individual exchanges with the team or during facilitated group sessions. In summary, empowerment programs are an unmet need in many healthcare services.


  1. Background: There are major deficiencies in the attention quality provided to people with diabetes in Mexico. The percentage of compliance of therapeutic objectives is noticeably lower than the one informed in developed countries. It is required to have structured management strategies, adapted to traits of our population, which allow improving attention quality in the medium term. The National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirn (INCMNSZ) developed an integrated management program by using the best evidence available. The target population is people with type 2 diabetes, with less than 5 years with the diagnosis, and is free from chronic complications. Selection criteria allow the intervention benefit to diminish incidence of chronic complications.
  2. Hypothesis: "The management strategy applied at the Center of Comprehensive Care for the Patient with Diabetes (CAIPaDi) allows achieving the international treatment standards (proposed by NCQA) in a two-year period".
  3. General and Specific objectives:

General objective: To quantify the results one year after starting the integrated management program oriented to self-care activities applied at CAIPaDi.

Specific objectives:

  • To measure the program impact (after 4 months, one and two years) based on the following variables: self-care (measured with standardized questionnaires), efficacy parameters (HbA1c, fasting glycemia, blood lipids, arterial pressure and use of anti-platelet aggregates), execution parameters (compliance of evaluations and preventive measures such as the search for microalbuminuria, ophthalmologic check, influenza vaccination, among others), incidence of micro- and macrovascular complications of diabetes, hospitalizations, use of emergency service or unforeseen expenses related to diabetes.
  • To compare the efficacy and execution parameters of the cases attended at the center, with patients with similar characteristics attended at the "Internal Medicine" service of the INCMNSZ.
  • To carry out a study of the social-economic impact of the intervention. 4. Goals: It is intended to validate an intervention that provides integrated attention to people with diabetes, in order to generate in the patient and his/her family, the competencies required for self-care in the long term and the prevention of chronic characteristics. Intervention is low-cost. This characteristic, along with the intervention systematization will allow the model to be exportable to the first-contact units. 5. Scientific Methodology: CAIPaDi has the mission of improving quality of life of patients with diabetes by means of an intervention adapted to the needs of patients, applying step-by-step action programs".

Intervention consists of four monthly visits, each one being 6 hours long. The visits have individual and group sessions. The nine specialists in the multidisciplinary team are endocrinologists, diabetes educator, nutritionists, psychologist, dentists, psychiatrist, specialist in physical activity, ophthalmologist and foot care. Some of the functions may be fulfilled by the same health professional, previously trained.

At each session, standardized actions are applied, which are assessed with preset indicators. At the initial and at yearly visits the following laboratory tests are taken: glycated hemoglobin, blood chemistry, lipid profile, liver function tests, albumin-creatinine index in an isolated urine sample, and 12-deviation electrocardiogram. At the yearly visits the patients receive reinforcement and treatment modifications as needed.

Contact is kept with patients via phone calls, e-mails and messages on the mobile phone. Patients are asked to send their assessments on preset dates. Materials and tools are developed, which allow measuring information from the study in real time, empowerment of patients and decision-making by the multi-disciplinary team, based on clinical practice guidelines.

There will be information from 1200 patients with 2-year follow-up. Besides having information from 1200 additional cases with follow-up at one year, and other 1200 others with assessments at 6 months. Therefore, the population for assessing execution variables shall be of 3600 participants. Such sample size allows us to detect differences higher than 5% in the percentage of cases that comply with the therapeutic objectives by comparing them with the initial assessment. As a secondary analysis, results will be compared with the population that receives attention the "Internal Medicine" service in the INCMNSZ (n=300 subjects).

Patients will be referred from clinics or first contact physicians outside the Institute.

6. Expected impacts at medium and long term: This proposal allows validating the intervention designed and applied at CAIPaDi. In case of demonstrating its usefulness and cost-effectiveness, intervention will be exported to first-contact units. Manuals and tools have been developed which will allow the implementation of the program with minimum resources. Such action will allow creating a network of health units that operate with the same quality standards as INCMNSZ.

7. Infrastructure available at the participating institutions: The INCMNSZ has an area where the center operates.

8. Deliverable results: Procedure manuals for each of the actions included in the intervention, tools for decision making based on clinical practice guidelines which will be patented, educational materials designed for empowering patients (patentable products), an internet portal, an electronic file, a database, articles in high impact magazines, diploma courses for generating specific competencies related to diabetes treatment and to the center management.

Condition NIDDM, Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, Diabetes Mellitus, Diabetes Mellitus Types I and II, Diabetes Prevention, Diabetes (Pediatric), Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2, Diabetes Prevention, Diabetes Mellitus Types I and II, Diabetes (Pediatric), Diabetes Mellitus Type 2, type 2 diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes, type ii diabetes, noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, diabetes type 2
Treatment CAIPaDi
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT02836808
SponsorInstituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran
Last Modified on22 January 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

being over 18 and under 70 years old
having diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in the five previous years
having family support
free of disabling diabetes complications

Exclusion Criteria

advanced complications of diabetes, such as ischemic heart disease, heart failure NYHA III-IV, KDOQI 3 renal failure, amputations, cerebral vascular disease, gastroparesis and muscular atrophy
type 1 diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes or some variant of diabetes related to genetic syndromes, hyperlabile diabetes
co-morbidities that limit their life expectancy such as malignant tumors
advanced cognitive impairment or serious psychiatric disorders
smoking, alcoholism or illegal drug dependence
conditions that require surgical treatment in the short run or which prevent moderated activity
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