Genetics of Insulin and Incretins in Cystic Fibrosis

  • End date
    Jul 23, 2025
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Updated on 23 May 2022


Cystic fibrosis related diabetes (CFRD) is associated with worse CF-relevant outcomes.

The mechanisms underlying CFRD development are not fully understood, but recent evidence suggests Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) mechanisms may be involved and may involve incretins (gut secreted hormones that augment insulin secretion in response to a nutrient load).

This study will examine the prevalence of Genome wide association study (GWAS)-implicated T2DM alleles (including TCF7L2) across the spectrum of glucose abnormalities in CF and will use this information to compare incretin and insulin secretion in non-diabetic children and adults with high risk and low risk alleles.


CFRD is associated with worse nutritional status, greater pulmonary function decline, and increased mortality, highlighting its relevance in CF and arises primarily from compromised insulin secretion--traditionally considered a by-product of pancreatic exocrine tissue damage and fibrosis. Recent developments in the field of diabetes are propelling a re-examination of this basic explanation. Genome-wide association studies have associated genetic variants in TCF7L2, a transcription factor implicated in enteroendocrine function, with increased susceptibility to T2DM and CFRD.

The Objectives of this study are to perform targeted sequencing of TCF7L2 and other GWAS-associated T2DM genes in the pediatric and adult CF populations and then to compare insulin secretory capacity, β-cell sensitivity to glucose, and incretin secretion in non-diabetic CF subjects with high and low-risk alleles.

Phase 1 will include 450-500 subjects (Children age>= 2 years, adolescents, and adults) for TCF7L2 genotype and ten other GWAS-implicated T2DM genes. The distribution of TCF7L2 and other GWAS-implicated T2 DM genes across the spectrum of glucose abnormalities will be described. Phase 1 requires a single blood or saliva sample and review of medical records.

Condition Cystic Fibrosis
Treatment Blood or Saliva Sample Collection, Glucose -potentiated arginine (GPA) stimulation tests
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT01852448
SponsorChildren's Hospital of Philadelphia
Last Modified on23 May 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Subjects age >2y
For subjects< 18 years, parental/guardian permission (informed consent) and if appropriate, child assent
Exclusion Criteria 1. Established diagnosis of non-CFRD (cystic fibrosis related diabetes)
(e.g T1DM)
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