Last updated on October 2018

Prospective Study on Severe Infections on Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) Patients

Brief description of study

All patients receiving induction, consolidation and salvage chemotherapy, and autologous or allogeneic stem cell transplantation according to a strategy defined in the GIMEMA AML1310 protocol will be prospectively monitored for SI (bacteremia, invasive mycoses, other microbiologically documented bacterial infections, pneumonia, other invasive tissue infections and viral diseases) during each chemotherapy and transplant and the impact of these infections on survival will be evaluated until 24 months from the diagnosis of AML.

Detailed Study Description

Treatment of AML patients during chemotherapy and SCT is frequently complicated by SI which may represent an obstacle to the antileukemic chemotherapy and transplant program. Antimicrobial prophylaxis, diagnostic approaches and antimicrobial therapy should be adapted to the infectious risk of the leukemic population. A crucial problem in the definition of these strategies is represented by the continuous change in the epidemiological patterns of infections as a result of the modification of risk factors in the leukemic population and of the global epidemiology of hospital and community acquired infections. In particular, the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens, particularly among gram negative bacteria, represents a serious problem which dramatically impacts on the antibacterial prophylaxis and treatments choices. A continuous epidemiology survey is required in order to better define proper prevention, diagnostic and treatment approaches. A common problem in the infections control in immunocompromised populations is represented by a late epidemiological consciousness. In particular, when new antileukemic strategies are implemented any change in the infectious epidemiology is frequently evidenced later retrospectively, but retrospective studies suffer of several drawbacks in the timely and proper collection of data.

The aim of the AML1310 GIMEMA protocol is to prospectively evaluate in a large population of newly diagnosed young AML patients the effect of a risk-adapted, MDR directed antileukemic strategy which includes chemotherapy and SCT. The objective of the trial is to evaluate the treatment strategy in terms of OS at 24 months and secondary objectives include the response rates and outcome according to clinical and biological characteristics at baseline and along the antileukemic treatment. A further secondary objective of the AML1310 study is the evaluation of the quality of life.

A prospective, longitudinal survey of infectious complications occurring in patients enrolled in the AML1310 study along the entire antileukemic program, as an ancillary observational study, may be a useful tool to evaluate in real-time the epidemiological patterns of infections, their impact on the OS, on the antileukemic treatment schedule, and on the quality of life. First, it may allow to assess whether the various types of SI, in addition to well known clinical and leukemia-related prognostic variables, are actually independent prognostic factors for the long-term outcome of AML patients. Second, the results of this survey may offer precious indications for the timely update of the prophylaxis , diagnosis and treatment strategies of infections in AML patients undergoing a modern antileukemic program. The advances in the treatment of AML resulting from the AML1310 study may be further enriched by the epidemiological consciousness derived by a parallel survey of the infectious complications.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT01570465

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