Last updated on February 2018

Eltrombopag for the Treatment of Thrombocytopenia Due to Low- and Intermediate Risk Myelodysplastic Syndromes


Brief description of study

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) prevail in older age and are characterized by ineffective erythropoiesis and peripheral cytopenias. Supportive therapy is the main therapeutic option for most patients. Quality of Life (QoL) is mainly deteriorated by anemia and by the limitations associated with thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and transfusion dependence. The only available treatment for severe thrombocytopenia, in the presence of bleeding, is platelet transfusion.

Eltrombopag is an orally bioavailable agonist of the thrombopoietin receptor. In adult patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), Eltrombopag rapidly increases platelet counts and significantly reduces bleeding episodes during treatment. Eltrombopag is well tolerated. In 2007, Eltrombopag has received the Orphan Drug Designation for the treatment of ITP (EMEA/OD/031/07), and in 2008 the Food and Drug Association approved Eltrombopag for the treatment of ITP refractory or resistant. It has been shown that in patients affected by MDS and by acute myeloid leukemia, Eltrombopag neither increases the proliferation, nor the clonogenic growth capacity of bone marrow blasts. Furthermore, Eltrombopag induces an increase in the megakaryocytic differentiation and in the formation of normal megakaryocytic colonies. These results provide the rationale for pursuing further research on Eltrombopag for the treatment of thrombocytopenia in case of MDS.

The study is open to adult patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with thrombocytopenia and low- or intermediate-1 IPSS risk (Index Prognostic Score System).

Severe thrombocytopenia associated with MDS may lead to death from hemorrhage, even in low prognostic risk patients. The benefit of platelet transfusion is short-termed. Patients become refractory in the long term. The availability of a treatment that induces the increase of platelet count is extremely important, either in terms of quality of life, and in overall survival.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT02912208

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