Safety and Efficacy Study of Idarubicin Dose Intensification to Treat Acute Myeloid Leukemia

  • days left to enroll
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    Konkuk University Medical Center
Updated on 23 January 2021
ejection fraction
secondary acute myeloid leukemia
neoadjuvant therapy


The purpose of this study is to determine whether idarubicin dose intensification is safe and effective as a remission induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia.


Up to nowadays, a standard induction therapy for acute myeloid leukemia(AML) has consisted of cytarabine 100-200 mg per square meter of body surface area(BSA) per day continuous infusion for 7 days with idarubicin 12 mg per square meter or daunorubicin 45 mg per square meter of BSA per day for 3 days. This standard therapy induces a complete remission(CR) in 50-75% of young adults and 40-50% of older adults. Recently two cooperative groups prospectively compared 45 mg per square meter of daunorubicin to 90 mg per square meter of BSA. They reported high-dose daunorubicin, as compared with a standard dose one, resulted in a significantly higher CR rate and improved overall survival(OS) up to age 65 without additional toxic effects.

Daunorubicin has been more commonly used anthracycline; however, idarubicin has a longer intracellular retention time and has shown more rapid clearance of marrow blasts. In the early 1990, three prospectively randomized studies showed that a combined regimen of idarubicin and cytarabine was superior to one of daunorubicin and cytarabine for the induction therapy of AML in adults. When they compared daunorubicin 45-50 mg per square meter with idarubicin 12-13 mg per square meter for induction therapy, there were no significant differences in hematologic and non-hematologic toxicities, including cardiac toxicity.

Phase I studies of idarubicin in patients with acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia in blast crisis reported the dose-limiting toxicities(DLT) were stomatitis and anorexia at the maximum tolerated dose(MTD) of 15 mg per square meter of BSA per day for 3 days. Based on the results of these studies, the investigators have generally administered idarubicin 12 mg per square meter per day for 3 days for the remission induction therapy of AML. Meanwhile Sanz et al. had administered idarubicin 12 mg per square meter per day for 4 days in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, and Tedeschi et al. had done a single high-dose idarubicin 40 mg per square meter combined with high-dose cytarabine 3 g per square meter per day for 5 days in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, with no significant increase of severe toxicity. The MTD of idarubicin should be reevaluated in the treatment of acute leukemia, especially in the era of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor and better supportive care available.

In this phase I study, idarubicin 12 mg per square meter of BSA per day for 3 days will be given to three patients at the first stage and then the idarubicin dose will be increased by 3 mg per square meter of BSA each stage. The phase I study consists of 3 stages and the idarubicin dose will be increased up to 18 mg per square meter of BSA per day for 3 days unless DLTs do not develop in more than 33% of enrolled patients at each stage. In the subsequent phase II study, the MTD being determined from the phase I study or 18 mg per square meter of idarubicin will be given to the enrolled patients. There were three large studies which enrolled a total of 942 previously untreated adult patients with AML and in which idarubicin 12-13 mg per square meter of BSA per day for 3 days and cytarabine 100 mg per square meter daily for 7 days were administered intravenously. Therefore, the investigators can adopt them as historical control groups in terms of statistical assessment.

In conclusion, the investigators desire to determine the safety and effectiveness of the intensified dose of idarubicin in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia through this phase I and II study.

Condition Acute myeloid leukemia, Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
Treatment Idarubicin
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT01518556
SponsorKonkuk University Medical Center
Last Modified on23 January 2021


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Inclusion Criteria

Patient has been fully informed, has complete understanding fo this study, and has given voluntary written informed consent to comply with the protocol requirements
previously untreated de novo or secondary acute myeloid leukemia, including biphenotypic leukemia
age between 20 and 65 years
adequate organ functions, unless these abnormalities are attributable to leukemia
left ventricular ejection fraction > 45%
serum creatinine < 1.5 x upper limit of normal
total bilirubin < 1.5 x upper limit of normal
alanine transferase and aspartate transferase < 2.5 x upper limit of normal if liver function abnormality is attributable to underlying leukemia, ALT and AST < 5 x upper limit of normal
Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0 to 2

Exclusion Criteria

hypersensitivity to the study drug
any other malignancies within 3 years, except for cured non-melanoma skin cancer and curatively treated in situ carcinoma of the cervix
New York Heart Association class III or IV heart failure, severe uncontrolled cardiac disease or myocardial infarction within the previous 6 months prior to the date of consent
incapable of giving voluntary written informed consent to comply with the protocol requirements, which results from drug or alcohol intoxication, or neurological or psychiatric disorders
pregnant or breastfeeding
recent chemotherapy within 4 weeks prior to this study treatment
acute promyelocytic leukemia
current or recent treatment with any other investigational medicinal product within 28 days prior to this study enrollment
unsuitable for this study, in the investigator's opinion
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