Validation of the English Version of the Pain Interference Index and the Pain Rating Scale in Children, Adolescents, and Adults With Chronic Illness and Their Parents

  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Updated on 15 September 2022
solid tumor
malignant solid tumor


  • Assessing pain levels is important to improve treatments for different illnesses. Most pain rating scales are used to determine pain levels in adults. Pain is also a common symptom among children who have cancer. Those who have genetic conditions that may lead to cancer may also have pain symptoms. However, the pain scales used for adults have not been fully tested in children and young adults. As a result, they may not be as accurate. Researchers want to test pain rating scales in children and young adults who have cancer and genetic conditions that can lead to cancer.
  • To study the effectiveness of pain rating scales given to children and adults with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD),cancer, and related genetic conditions.
  • Adults 18 and 34 years of age and older who have SCD, cancer, or other genetic conditions that can lead to cancer.
  • Participants with SCD, cancer or related genetic conditions will fill out four questionnaires. These questionnaires will ask about pain levels and how much pain interferes with daily life.
  • Pain treatments will not be provided as part of this study.



Pain is a common symptom among children with a variety of medical illnesses. Currently, a number of rating scales are used to assess pain interference and pain severity in adults. However, relatively few measures assessing these variables have been validated for use with children and adolescents, and existing tools have limitations.


The primary objective is to validate the self-report and parent versions of the Pain Interference Index (PII) and the Pain Rating Scale (PRS) by comparison with previously validated measures of pain interference (Modified Brief Pain Inventory) and pain severity (Faces Pain Scale - Revised) in the following populations:

-Children, adolescents, and young adults ages 8 to 25 years with chronic pain related to cancer, Neurofibromas type 1 (NF1), genetic tumor predisposition syndromes (GTPS), a solid tumor (including but not limited to sarcoma, neuroblastoma, or melanoma), or

leukemia and their parent(s) or guardians. (COMPLETED)

Adults > =18 years of age with cancer, NF1, Sickle Cell Disease (SCD)

  • >= 18 years of age
  • Diagnosis of cancer, NF1, SCD
  • Enrolled on a clinical trial or natural history study at the NIH Clinical Center
  • Eligible participants will be asked to respond one time to the PII and the PRS, as well as the Modified Brief Pain Inventory and Faces Pain Scale - reviewed during a scheduled clinic visit for their primary protocol, over video conferencing, or while inpatient.
  • Demographic (gender and age, parent gender (if applicable) and medical (diagnosis, date of diagnosis, pain medication) data will be collected from review of the participants medical record.
  • A subset of evaluable participants with SCD will be asked to repeat the PII after

approximately 1 month to assess test-retest reliability in this tool.

  • Parents of pediatric participants were asked to complete the Parent version of the PII and the Parent PRS. Correlations between patient participant and parent participant questionnaire results for participants with solid tumor, NF1, GTPS, and leukemia will be correlated to establish validity and reliability of the PII and PRS. (COMPLETE)
  • Also, results from mother and father reports will be correlated to assess inter-rater

reliability. (COMPLETE)

-Data from 12 participants ages 6 and 7 years was collected to determine the feasibility of the forms in this younger age group. (COMPLETE)

Condition Sickle Cell Disease, Solid Tumor, Leukemia, Neurofibromatosis
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT01639950
SponsorNational Cancer Institute (NCI)
Last Modified on15 September 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Participants must have a cytologically confirmed cancer, SCD, or meet the diagnostic criteria for NF1 documented in the medical record according to the primary treatment or natural history protocol. Participants must be at least one month post-diagnosis
Age >= 18
Participants who complete the pain interference measure (the Pain Interference Index PII) and the pain severity tool (Pain Rating Scale PRS) once but who miss their Time 2 evaluation, are eligible to enroll a second time to complete the measures again in order to participate in the test-retest reliability assessment
Ability to read and/or understand English

Exclusion Criteria

Participants may be excluded from this study if in the judgment of the Principal or
Associate Investigator, the subject is too ill, or subject s cognitive ability would
compromise their ability to participate in study related procedures
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Additional screening procedures may be conducted by the study team before you can be confirmed eligible to participate.

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If you are confirmed eligible after full screening, you will be required to understand and sign the informed consent if you decide to enroll in the study. Once enrolled you may be asked to make scheduled visits over a period of time.

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Complete your scheduled study participation activities and then you are done. You may receive summary of study results if provided by the sponsor.

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