CODEPAD (Collaborative Outcomes of DEpression and Pain Associated With Delivery)

  • End date
    Dec 31, 2022
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    KK Women's and Children's Hospital
Updated on 23 April 2021
depressed mood
epidural analgesia


Postnatal depression affects about 10-15% of women after childbirth. Approximately 3-5% of women experience a moderate-to-severe depression that requires medical attention. This study aims to investigate the implication of pain relief choice in reducing the postnatal depression of women who deliver their babies.


If the patients have not decided on which pain relief method to be used, and would like to take part in this study, they will be assigned to either epidural or non-epidural pain relief for labour based on the study randomization result. Blood samples will be drawn to study the presence of known functional polymorphisms in candidate genes associated with depression, pain, stress and anxiety. Patients will be followed up with study questionnaires related to pain and postnatal depression screening during the study.

During any time of the labour period, the patient is allowed to switch the pain relief option upon request.

Condition obstetrical anesthesia, Postpartum depression, Obstetric Analgesia, Post-Partum Depression
Treatment Fentanyl, ropivacaine, Epidural delivery system, Entonox, Meperidine, Meperidine, Ultiva
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03167905
SponsorKK Women's and Children's Hospital
Last Modified on23 April 2021


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Healthy adult (American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 and 2) parturients at term (36 weeks gestation or more) (nulliparous and multiparous)
With a singleton fetus

Exclusion Criteria

Multiple pregnancies
Non-cephalic fetal presentation
Obstetric complications (e.g. pre-eclampsia, uncontrolled hypertension, uncontrolled diabetes)
Elective and urgent caesarean section (not from delivery suite)
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