Last updated on June 2019

Denosumab and Pembrolizumab in Clear Cell Renal Carcinoma


Brief description of study

This Single-arm, multicentre, phase 2 trial aims determine the activity and safety of pembrolizumab and denosumab in advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).

Detailed Study Description

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the 9th most common cancer in Australia, the 10th most common cancer in Western populations1. Approximately 75% of kidney cancers are clear-cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCC). Current treatments for metastatic ccRCC include VEGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) and mTOR inhibitors and while many patients benefit from first-line VEGFR TKIs, progression is inevitable and these treatments remain palliative. Second-line VEGFR TKIs and mTOR inhibitors have some benefit but in a smaller increment than first-line treatment. ccRCC is highly immunogenic with benefit from adjuvant autologous vaccines, high-dose IL2 in selected patients and spontaneous remissions seen in a fraction of patients. Cytokine immunotherapy delivered durable complete responses in a subset of patients who survived the very high toxicity of these agents, but use of cytokine immunotherapy is uncommon in modern practice.

Preclinical data and case reports suggest that denosumab, an inhibitor of RANKL signalling, might potentiate the anti-tumour effects of immunotherapy with pembrolizumab, an antibody directed against PD-1, without overlapping toxicities.

This study aims to determine the activity and safety of pembrolizumab and denosumab in advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), in patients with disease progression during or after VEGFR TKI treatment.

Adults with unresectable or metastatic ccRCC progressing after treatment with a VEGFR TKI. Key eligibility criteria include target lesion(s) according to RECIST 1.1, good performance status (ECOG PS 0-2), no history of significant autoimmune disease, tumour sample available (archival or recent biopsy), and no previous treatment with immunotherapy.

All participants will receive the study interventions of pembrolizumab and denosumab. All participants will receive the study interventions of pembrolizumab and denosumab. Pembrolizumab will be given every 3 weeks at a dose of 200mg and denosumab will be given on day 1, day 8, day 22 and then every 21 days (3 weekly) thereafter as a single subcutaneous injection. Treatment with pembrolizumab and denosumab will continue until evidence of clinical progression or prohibitive toxicity, or withdrawal of consent, up to a maximum duration of 2 years.

70 eligible participants will be recruited from 15 sites in Australia and New Zealand over a 2 year period.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT03280667

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