Testing the Addition of KRT-232 (AMG 232) to Usual Chemotherapy for Relapsed Multiple Myeloma

  • End date
    Dec 31, 2022
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    National Cancer Institute (NCI)
Updated on 11 July 2022
platelet count
graft versus host disease
monoclonal antibodies
measurable disease
growth factor
cell transplantation
bone marrow procedure
gilbert's syndrome
induction therapy
progressive disease
neutrophil count
monoclonal antibody therapy
chemotherapy regimen
monoclonal protein
serum calcium
amg 232
bone lesions
light chain level
light chain measurement


This phase I trial studies the side effects and best dose of MDM2 Inhibitor KRT-232 when given together with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone in treating patient with multiple myeloma that has come back (relapsed) or has not responded to previous treatment (refractory). KRT-232 (AMG 232) may stop the growth of cancer cells by blocking a protein called MDM2 that is needed for cell growth. Lenalidomide help shrink or slow the growth of multiple myeloma. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as carfilzomib and dexamethasone, work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving MDM2 Inhibitor KRT-232, lenalidomide, carfilzomib, and dexamethasone together may work better in treating patients with multiple myeloma.



I. Evaluate safety and tolerability of MDM2 Inhibitor KRT-232 (KRT-232 [AMG 232]) in combination with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd). (Part A) II. Determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) of KRT-232 (AMG 232) in combination with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd). (Part A) III. Confirm the safety and tolerability of KRT-232 (AMG 232) in combination with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) at MTD/tentative RP2D in a goal of 10 subjects with relapsed and/or refractory myeloma. (Part B)


I. Evaluate progressive disease (PD) effects of KRT-232 (AMG 232) through serum MIC-1 levels. (Part A) II. Assess KRT-232 (AMG 232) exposure-response relationships (PD, toxicity, and efficacy). (Part A) III. Evaluate the overall response rate of KRT-232 (AMG 232) in combination with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) in relapsed/refractory myeloma by International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria. (Part B) IV. Evaluate PD effects of KRT-232 (AMG 232) through serum MIC-1 levels. (Part B) V. Assess KRT-232 (AMG 232) exposure-response relationships (PD, toxicity, and efficacy). (Part B)


I. To observe and record anti-tumor activity of KRT-232 (AMG 232) in combination with carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd) in relapsed/refractory myeloma by International Myeloma Working Group (IMWG) criteria. (Part A) II. Evaluate ribonucleic acid (RNA) expression levels of relevant genes in the TP53 pathway that may predict response to therapy using pre- and post-treatment bone marrow biopsies. (Parts A and B)

OUTLINE: This is a dose-escalation study of MDM2 Inhibitor KRT-232.

Patients receive MDM2 Inhibitor KRT-232 orally (PO) once daily (QD) on days 1-7, carfilzomib intravenously (IV) over 10-30 minutes on days 1-2, 8-9, and 15-16 of cycles 1-12 and on days 1-2 and 15-16 of cycles 13-18, lenalidomide PO on days 1-21, and dexamethasone PO or dexamethasone sodium phosphate IV on days 1, 8, 15, and 22. Cycles repeat every 28 days in the absence of disease progression or unexpected toxicity.

After completion of study treatment, patients are followed up for 30 days.

Condition Plasmacytoma, Recurrent Plasma Cell Myeloma, Refractory Plasma Cell Myeloma
Treatment laboratory biomarker analysis, Dexamethasone, Lenalidomide, pharmacological study, Carfilzomib, MDM2 Inhibitor AMG-232, Dexamethasone sodium phosphate, MDM2 Inhibitor KRT-232, Navtemadlin
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03031730
SponsorNational Cancer Institute (NCI)
Last Modified on11 July 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Subjects must have histologically confirmed diagnosis of multiple myeloma
Subjects must have measurable disease, as defined by at least one of the following
Serum monoclonal protein M-protein level >= 0.5 g/dL
Urinary M-protein excretion of >= 200 mg over a 24-hour period
Involved free light chain level >= 10 mg/dL, along with an abnormal free light chain ratio
Subjects must have disease that has relapsed and/or refractory after their most recent
Serum M-component protein (the absolute increase must be >= 0.5 g/dL) and/or
therapy, with progressive disease (PD) being defined as an increase of 25%
Urine M-component protein (the absolute increase must be >= 200 mg/24 hours) and/or
from the lowest response value in any one or more of the following
Only in subjects without a measurable serum and urine M protein level: the difference between involved and uninvolved free light chain (FLC) levels (absolute increase) must be > 10 mg/dL
Definite development of new bone lesions or soft tissue plasmacytomas or definite increase in the size of existing bone lesions or soft tissue plasmacytomas
Development of hypercalcemia (corrected serum calcium > 11.5 mg/dL) that can be attributed solely to the plasma cell proliferative disorder
Subjects must have completed their most recent drug therapy directed at multiple myeloma in the following timeframes
Antitumor therapy (chemotherapy, antibody therapy, molecular targeted therapy, retinoid therapy, hormonal therapy, or investigational agent) at least 21 days prior to cycle 1 day 1 (C1D1) KRT-232 (AMG 232) + KRd
Subjects with one to three lines of therapy for their disease with a line of therapy
Corticosteroids at least 3 weeks prior to starting KRT-232 (AMG 232) + KRd, except for a dose equivalent to dexamethasone of =< 4 mg/day
defined as one or more cycles of a planned treatment program; using this
Autologous stem cell transplantation at least 12 weeks prior to starting KRT-232 (AMG 232) + KRd
definition, treatment with induction therapy, followed by high dose
chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplantation, and finally by
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation at least 24 weeks prior to starting KRT-232 (AMG 232) + KRd, and these subjects must also NOT have moderate to severe active acute or chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD)
maintenance therapy, would constitute one line, provided that multiple myeloma
did not meet criteria for progression at any time during this period
Absolute neutrophil count (ANC) >= 1,000/mcL without growth factors within 2 week of initiation of treatment
Platelets >= 50,000 cells/mm^3 if marrow plasmacytosis < 50% OR platelet count >= 30,000 cells/mm^3 if marrow plasmacytosis >= 50%
Hemoglobin >= 8 g/dL within 2 weeks of the initiation of treatment
Total bilirubin < 1.5 x institutional upper limit of normal (ULN) (< 2.0 x ULN for subjects with documented Gilbert's syndrome or < 3.0 x ULN for subjects for whom the indirect bilirubin level suggests an extrahepatic source of elevation)
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase [SGOT])/alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase [SGPT]) =< 2.5 x ULN
Alkaline phosphatase < 2.0 x ULN (if liver or bone disease are present, < 3.0 x ULN)
Subjects must be >= 18 years old. Because no dosing or adverse event data are
currently available on the use of KRT-232 (AMG 232) in combination with KRd
Prothrombin time (PT) or partial thromboplastin time (PTT) < 1.5 x upper limit of normal (ULN), OR international normalized ratio (INR) < 1.5
subjects < 18 years of age are excluded from this study
Subjects who have received radiation therapy targeting > 10% of the bone marrow space must have completed this at least 2 weeks prior to starting therapy with KRT-232 (AMG 232) + KRd
Subjects must have Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status =< 2 (Karnofsky >= 60%)
Subjects must be able and willing to provide bone marrow biopsies/aspirates and buccal swab as requested by the protocol
Subjects must be willing to undergo myeloma genotyping for TP53 mutation, insertion, or deletion at screening
Subjects must have an estimated life expectancy of at least 3 months
The effects of KRT-232 (AMG 232) on the developing human fetus are unknown; for this reason and because lenalidomide is known to be teratogenic, women of child-bearing potential must commit to either abstaining continuously from heterosexual sexual intercourse or agree to use 2 forms of adequate contraception or continuously abstain from the time of informed consent for the duration of study participation through 5 weeks (women) after receiving the last dose of KRT-232 (AMG 232), lenalidomide, or carfilzomib; should a woman become pregnant or suspect she is pregnant while she or her partner is participating in this study, she should inform her treating physician immediately; men treated or enrolled on this protocol must also agree to use adequate contraception prior to the study, for the duration of study participation, and 3 months after completion of KRT-232 (AMG 232) administration; this includes one highly effective form of contraception (e.g. intrauterine device [IUD], hormonal [birth control pills, injections, hormonal patches, vaginal rings or implants] or partner's vasectomy) and one additional effective contraceptive method (e.g. male latex or synthetic condom, diaphragm, or cervical cap)
Subjects must be able to swallow medication
Ability to understand and the willingness to sign a written informed consent document
Creatinine clearance (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR]) >= 50 mL/min/1.73 m^2

Exclusion Criteria

Subjects with myeloma that is relapsed and/or refractory to KRd when used in combination defined as progression of disease while on therapy or within 60 days of completing therapy
Subjects must show evidence of wild-type (WT) p53 status on somatic tissue specimens as assessed by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequencing; note that since patients with relapsed myeloma have a rapidly proliferating disease, patient can be enrolled and begin treatment prior to obtaining the results of this test; patients who are discovered to have a TP53 mutation will be removed from study after cycle one and can continue on carfilzomib, lenalidomide, and dexamethasone (KRd); all enrolled patients will be followed for toxicity
Subjects who have not recovered from toxicities from prior anti-tumor therapy, defined as not having resolved to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 5.0 grade 0 or 1, or to levels dictated in the eligibility criteria with the exception of alopecia (grade 2 or 3 toxicities from prior antitumor therapy that are considered irreversible [defined as having been present and stable for > 6 months], such as grade 2 chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, may be allowed if they are not otherwise described in the exclusion criteria AND there is agreement to allow by both the investigator and sponsor)
Subjects who are receiving any other investigational agents
Subjects who have undergone major surgery within 28 days of study day 1; vertebroplasty and/or kyphoplasty, which must have been performed at least 1 week prior to starting KRT-232 (AMG 232) + KRd
Subjects with known central nervous system involvement of myeloma should be excluded from this clinical trial because of their poor prognosis and because they often develop progressive neurologic dysfunction that would confound the evaluation of neurologic and other adverse events
Subjects with history of allergic reactions attributed to compounds of similar chemical or biologic composition to KRT-232 (AMG 232) or carfilzomib, lenalidomide, or dexamethasone
Subjects' medication list such as herbal medicines (e.g., St. John's wort), vitamins, and supplements will be reviewed before starting first dose of KRT-232 (AMG 232) and at each clinic visit; any potential drug interactions will be brought and discussed with the principal investigator; use of any known CYP3A4 substrates with narrow therapeutic window (such as alfentanil, astemizole, cisapride, dihydroergotamine, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus, or terfanide) within the 14 days prior to receiving the first dose of KRT-232 (AMG 232) is not permitted; other medications (such as fentanyl and oxycodone) may be allowed per investigator's assessment/evaluation
Treatment with medications known to cause QTc interval prolongation within 7 days of study day 1 is not permitted unless approved by the sponsor; use of ondansetron is permitted for treatment of nausea and vomiting
Current use of warfarin, factor Xa inhibitors and direct thrombin inhibitors; Note: low molecular weight heparin and prophylactic low dose warfarin are permitted; PT/PTT must meet the inclusion criteria; subjects taking warfarin must have their INR followed closely
Uncontrolled intercurrent illness including, but not limited to, ongoing or active infection, symptomatic congestive heart failure, unstable angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmia, or psychiatric illness/social situations that would limit compliance with study requirements
Subjects with myocardial infarction within 6 months of study day 1, symptomatic congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association [NYHA] class III and higher), unstable angina, or cardiac arrhythmia requiring medication are excluded
Subjects with gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease causing the inability to take oral medication, malabsorption syndrome, requirement for intravenous alimentation, prior surgical procedures affecting absorption, uncontrolled inflammatory GI disease (e.g., Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis)
Subjects with history of bleeding diathesis
Subjects with active infection requiring IV antibiotics within 2 weeks of study enrollment (day 1) are excluded
Positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HepBsAg) (indicative of chronic hepatitis B), positive hepatitis total core antibody with negative HBsAG (suggestive of occult hepatitis B), or detectable hepatitis C virus RNA by a polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) assay (indicative of active hepatitis C - screening is generally done by hepatitis C antibody [HepCAb], followed by hepatitis C virus RNA by PCR if HepCAb is positive); subjects with hepatitis B virus suppressed on therapy, and previously treated/eradicated hepatitis C virus are eligible for study
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive subjects positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are NOT excluded from this study, but HIV-positive subjects must have
A stable regimen of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)
No requirement for concurrent antibiotics or antifungal agents for the prevention of opportunistic infections
CD4 count above 250 cells/mcL and an undetectable HIV viral load on standard PCR-based test
Women who are lactating/breast feeding or who plan to breastfeed while on study through 1 week after receiving the last dose of study drug
Subjects with prior treatment with an MDM2 inhibitor
Pregnant women are excluded from this study because KRT-232 (AMG 232) is an agent with
the potential for teratogenic or abortifacient effects; because there is an
unknown but potential risk for adverse events in nursing infants secondary to
treatment of the mother with KRT-232 (AMG 232), breastfeeding should be
discontinued if the mother is treated with KRT-232 (AMG 232); these potential
risks may also apply to other agents used in this study
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