Decipher Lethal Prostate Cancer Biology - Urine Metabolomics

  • End date
    Aug 1, 2025
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    National Taiwan University Hospital
Updated on 9 April 2022


Through a better understanding of the biology of significant (lethal) prostate cancer, we hope to develop new markers/targets from urine metabolomics for more effective screening and prevention of significant prostate cancer. In the meantime, with these new markers we may substantially reduce overtreatment of insignificant PC.


Prostate cancer (PC) afflicts millions of men worldwide. In Taiwan, around 5,000 men are diagnosed as PC while 1,200 men die of the disease each year. However, thousands of Taiwanese men may have been over-treated for their insignificant PCs. The above situations signify the unmet clinical need where effective measures of stratifying risk of PC are lacking. The study is to identify new markers/targets with which to better screen and prevent significant (sPC) or lethal PC (lePC).

This is a prospective, observational and investigational study investigating the role of urine omics studies (metabolomics and proteomics) in subjects who will undergo prostate biopsy or have completed biopsy and/or subsequent MCS supplementation. MCS (or Botreso) is a new patented botanic agent, composed of primarily multi-carotenoids, including lycopene, phytoene, phytofluene, etc. The expected subject number to be enrolled is 620 men and 20 women from NTUH. There will be 3 cohorts: Cohort A (N=990), Cohort B (N=990) and Cohort C (N=40). Cohort A will be the training cohort used to generate the predictive model. Cohort B will be the validation cohort used to validate the newly developed predictive model. Cohort C is the control cohort, including 20 women and 20 men without any signs of cancers.

By risk stratification after biopsy pathology results are available, there will be 5 groups of subjects, including patients with Group 1. mPC: Metastatic prostate cancer Group 2. sPC: Non-metastatic significant prostate cancer (sPC) Group 3. isPC: Non-metastatic insignificant PC (isPC) Group 4. Pre-cancerous lesions: atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) or prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) Group 5. Non-cancer benign pathology

In the current study, sPC is defined as any of the followings: Gleason score >= 4+3=7, stage > =T3a (capsule invasion), or presence of metastasis.

Biopsy pathology report and clinicopathological parameters will be recorded. In addition, transcriptomics study will be performed. Group specific urine omics profiles will be constructed by comparing the outstanding metabolites between groups. These urine omics profiles are constructed so as to efficiently separate groups of graded risk stratification, especially to predict subjects with mPC (Group 1) or sPC (Group 2). The newly constructed urine omics profiles from Cohort A will be validated against Cohort B of subjects who will undergo biopsy to determine the predictive efficiency of the constructed profiles.

In Cohort A, sPC (Group 2), isPC (Group 3), ASAP/PIN (Group 4) and benign pathology patients (Group 5) will further be invited to take MCS supplementation for 8 weeks after the pathology confirmation. The expected enrollment number is 30 for each of the 4 groups (in total 120). Urine samples will be collected before and after 8 weeks of MCS supplementation for metabolomics and proteomics analysis. The effect of MCS supplementation in modifying urine metabolites will be investigated to determine the potential use of MCS in prostate cancer chemoprevention.

Through a better understanding of the biology of significant (lethal) PC, we hope to develop new markers/targets for more effective screening and prevention of sPC. In the meantime, with these new markers we may substantially reduce overtreatment of insignificant PC.

Condition Significant Prostate Cancer
Treatment Multi-Carotenoids
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03237702
SponsorNational Taiwan University Hospital
Last Modified on9 April 2022


Yes No Not Sure

Inclusion Criteria

Subjects who have planned to undergo prostate biopsy or have completed biopsy before 6 weeks
Subjects who are aged between 30 and 100 years men
For subjects who are prostate cancer patients for rebiopsy, the testosterone level should be within normal limit (testosterone >1.5 ng/ml)
Subjects who understand the entire study procedures and consent to donate his spot urine (once for 50 ml) and agree with subsequent analyses of his clinical information including biopsy results, treatments and outcomes. (Note: Subjects will be told that the urine metabolomics results will not be revealed to them.)

Exclusion Criteria

Subjects who have other active cancers. However, subjects who have cancers that have been curatively treated and who are disease-free for 3 years or longer are allowed to be enrolled
Subjects who have severe organ function impairment which may significantly alter general cell metabolism determined by the investigators, such as or Cre > 3.0, HbA1c > 9.0%, symptomatic heart failure, or other symptomatic metabolic diseases
Subjects who are receiving or have received systemic therapy, such as chemotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), immunotherapy, or targeted therapy within 3 months of the screening
Subjects who have been treated with pelvic radiotherapy within 3 months of the screening
Subjects who have significant infection or inflammation within 8 weeks of the biopsy
Subjects who have pyuria (defined as > 5 WBC/HPF) of urinalysis results within 4 weeks of the biopsy
Topical or oral prednisolone equivalent dosage larger 10 mg per day for 14 days or more
The last dose of prednisolone is within 4 weeks of the biopsy
Subjects who have a life expectancy less than 12 months
Subjects who use MCS or found supplementation containing large amount of lycopene in recent 60 days or less. The definition of large amount of lycopene is more than 2 mg per day
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