Testing an Integrated Bio-Behavioral Primary HIV Prevention Intervention Among High-Risk People Who Use Drugs (CHRP-BB)

    Not Recruiting
  • participants needed
  • sponsor
    University of Connecticut
Updated on 22 September 2023
drug use
AIDS prevention
cognitive impairment
injection drug
hiv prevention


This study will evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of CHRP-BB - an integrated bio-behavioral approach that incorporates the use of PrEP - with an evidence-based behavioral approach aimed at enhancing PrEP adherence and HIV risk reduction among high risk PWUD.


PWUD remain a priority population as they represent a critical conduit for new HIV infections, which are transmitted through preventable drug- and sex-related HIV risk behaviors. Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) - the daily self-administration of antiretroviral medication - has enormous potential to bolster primary HIV prevention outcomes among PWUD. PrEP is a FDA-approved biomedical HIV prevention strategy recommended by the CDC and WHO for key populations, including PWUD. Despite unequivocal evidence supporting PrEP, its scale-up has been nearly absent among high risk PWUD. Moreover, adherence to PrEP is crucial if it is to be effective with high risk individuals. Recent research, however, indicates that optimal PrEP adherence may be compromised by neurocognitive impairment (NCI), particularly among PWUD. Due to chronic drug use, related lifestyle experiences, and other health challenges, many PWUD experience NCI to the extent that it impedes medication adherence, HIV risk reduction, and treatment retention. In a recent HIV prevention trial, over a third of high risk PWUD on opioid replacement therapy (ORT) had moderate to high levels of NCI and, moreover, were less likely to reduce their HIV transmission risk vs. those without NCI. The potentially disruptive impact of NCI must therefore be addressed when designing contemporary intervention strategies targeting PWUD. Contemporary approaches must also be cost-effective and usable in real-world treatment settings, such as methadone maintenance programs (MMPs) where high risk PWUD are concentrated and can be readily reached with primary prevention. To date, however, primary prevention efforts have largely relied on singular strategies (e.g., methadone or PrEP alone) with modest HIV risk reduction outcomes for PWUD. Instead, advancing combination approaches capable of harnessing the synergy and efficiency possible via multiple evidence-based strategies is most effective. This combination strategy is especially important when intervening with high risk PWUD with NCI due to the potential decreased effectiveness of PrEP when adherence is suboptimal, thereby necessitating behavioral interventions that focus on reducing HIV risk and increasing PrEP adherence. Building on promising preliminary work, the proposed trial will fill a critical void by testing an integrated bio-behavioral approach that incorporates the use of PrEP with an evidence-based behavioral approach and, using innovative strategies, enhances PrEP adherence and HIV risk behavior in a manner that accommodates NCI among PWUD.

Condition Risk Behavior, HIV/AIDS, Medication Adherence, Substance Abuse
Treatment CHRP-BB
Clinical Study IdentifierNCT03282890
SponsorUniversity of Connecticut
Last Modified on22 September 2023

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