Faced with noncompliance of required reporting of clinical trial information, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HSS) issued a final rule last September that gave more specifics about registering certain clinical trials and submitting summary results information to ClinicalTrials.gov. The rule also expanded the legal requirements for submitting registration and results information for clinical trials involving FDA-regulated drug, biological, and device products. National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded trials fell under reporting requirements, as well, as the NIH issued a complementary policy at the same time. NIH-funded trials must register and submit summary results information to ClinicalTrials.gov even if the trials are not subject to the final rule. Although the enhancements add measures to improve the amount of clinical trial information on ClinicalTrials.gov, some researchers in favor of total transparency say that enforcement action and penalties still fall short.