Vyxeos (daunorubicin and cytarabine)

The following drug information is obtained from various newswires, published medical journal articles, and medical conference presentations.

Company:

Approval Status:

Approved August 2017

Specific Treatments:

newly-diagnosed therapy-related AML or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes

Therapeutic Areas

General Information

Vyxeos is a liposomal combination of daunorubicin, an anthracycline topoisomerase inhibitor, and cytarabine, a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor.

Vyxeos is specifically indicated for the treatment of adults with newly-diagnosed therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes (AML-MRC). 

Vyxos is supplied as a liposome for intravenous infusion. The recommended dose schedule is as follows: Induction: Vyxeos (daunorubicin 44 mg/m2 and cytarabine 100 mg/m2) liposome via intravenous infusion over 90 minutes on days 1, 3, and 5 and on days 1 and 3 for subsequent cycles of induction, if needed. Consolidation: Vyxeos (daunorubicin 29 mg/m2 and cytarabine 65 mg/m2) liposome via intravenous infusion over 90 minutes on days 1 and 3. 

Clinical Results

FDA Approval

The FDA approval of Vyxeos was based on a pivotal Phase III clinical trial that evaluated the efficacy and safety of Vyxeos compared to cytarabine and daunorubicin (7+3) in 309 patients 60 to 75 years of age with newly diagnosed t-AML or AML-MRC.  In the Vyxeos arm, patients received 44mg/100mg per m2 (daunorubicin and cytarabine) liposome intravenously via a 90 minute infusion on days 1, 3 and 5 of induction (days 1 and 3 if a second induction was needed) and 29mg/65mg per m2 (daunorubicin and cytarabine) liposome on days 1 and 3 for consolidation.  Patients in the 7+3 arm received induction with cytarabine 100mg/m2/day on days 1-7 by continuous infusion and daunorubicin 60mg/m2/day on days 1-3.  For consolidation, cytarabine was dosed on days 1-5 and daunorubicin on days 1-2.  For the primary endpoint of overall survival, Vyxeos demonstrated an improvement that was superior to the 7+3 treatment regimen.  The median overall survival for the Vyxeos treatment group was 9.6 months compared with 5.9 months for the 7+3 treatment group (p = 0.005; HR = 0.69 [0.52, 0.90]).  Vyxeos also demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in complete response rate of 38 percent versus 26 percent; p=0.036.  The overall, all-cause 30-day mortality was 6 percent in the Vyxeos arm and 11 percent in the control arm. 

Side Effects

Adverse effects associated with the use of Vyxeos may include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • hemorrhagic events
  • febrile neutropenia
  • rash
  • edema
  • nausea
  • mucositis
  • diarrhea
  • constipation
  • musculoskeletal pain
  • fatigue
  • abdominal pain
  • dyspnea
  • headache
  • cough
  • decreased appetite
  • arrhythmia
  • pneumonia
  • bacteremia
  • chills
  • sleep disorders
  • vomiting

Mechanism of Action

Vyxeos is a liposomal combination of daunorubicin, an anthracycline topoisomerase inhibitor, and cytarabine, a nucleoside metabolic inhibitor. Daunorubicin has antimitotic and cytotoxic activity, which is achieved by forming complexes with DNA, inhibiting topoisomerase II activity, inhibiting DNA polymerase activity, affecting regulation of gene expression, and producing DNA-damaging free radicals. Cytarabine is a cell cycle phase-specific antineoplastic agent, affecting cells only during the S-phase of cell division. Cytarabine acts primarily through inhibition of DNA polymerase. 

Additional Information

For additional information regarding Vyxeos or newly-diagnosed therapy-related AML or AML with myelodysplasia-related changes, please visit https://vyxeos.com/