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Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)
December 13, 2010
Celator issued positive results from a phase II trial of CPX-351 for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).This North-America-based, randomized, open-label enrolled 126 subjects with newly diagnosed AML. The subjects received CPX- 351 or the conventional cytarabine and daunorubicin regimen. At 12 months, CPX-351 resulted in the following improvements over the conventional regimen: a higher aplasia rate (87.7% vs. 71.1%), a higher remission rate (complete remissions and complete remissions with incomplete neutrophil/platelet recovery; 66.7% vs. 51.2%), lower induction mortality (4.7% vs. 14.6%), improved median event-free survival (5.4 vs. 2 months) and improved median overall survival (14.7 vs. 12.9 months). Greater improvements over the conventional regimen were also observed in a subset of high-risk subjects and those with secondary AML. Adverse events were comparable between the treatment arms.
March 29, 2010
BioSante issued positive results from a phase II trial of GVAX, a potential vaccine for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). This open-label trial enrolled 54 subjects who received either immunotherapy-primed lymphocytes following autologous stem cell transplantation, with or without GVAX. Of the 54 subjects enrolled, 28 (52%) received a pre-transplantation GVAX AML dose. A total of 46 (85%) subjects achieved complete remission during the treatment period. For all subjects who achieved complete remission, the 3-year relapse-free survival rate was 47.4% compared to 61.8% in the GVAX-treated group. While the overall survival rate in all subjects was 57.4%, it was 73.4% in the GVAX-treated group.
December 14, 2009
Sunesis reported positive results from a phase II trial of voreloxin for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. This open label study, dubbed REVEAL-1 (Response Evaluation of Voreloxin in Elderly AML), enrolled l 13 previously untreated, elderly subjects who were unlikely to benefit from standard induction chemotherapy. The trial included three dosing schedules: Schedule A, once weekly for three weeks, Schedule B, once weekly for two weeks and Schedule C, on days one and four at either 72 mg/m2 or 90 mg/m2. Median survival was 8.7 months in Schedule A; 5.8 months in Schedule B; and 7.3 months in Schedule C (72 mg/m2 on days one and four). Median duration of remission was 10.7 months and one year survival was 38% for Schedule A. For the other schedules, median duration of remission has not been reached and one year survival is too early to evaluate. Subjects aged 75 or older (n≡49) with at least 1 additional risk factor at diagnosis experienced a CR rate of 30% and a 30-day all-cause mortality of 5%. Survival in these patients was too early to evaluate. For Schedule C, response rates were 38% and 30- and 60-day all-cause mortality were 7% and 17%, with improved tolerability over Schedule A. Based on trial results, Schedule C was determined to be the optimal regimen for future studies.
February 4, 2008
Bayer and Onyx released positive results from an ongoing phase I/II trial of sorafenib for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This trial enrolled newly relapsed subjects and those newly diagnosed with high-risk disease. The subjects received sorafenib in combination with the standard of care chemotherapy combination for AML, idarubicin and cytosine arabinoside. Results showed that sorafenib targeted the FLT3-ITD mutation, a genetic mutation active in about one third of the subjects with AML. In sixteen evaluable subjects with this mutation, sorafenib reduced the median percentage of leukemia cells circulating in the blood from 81% to 7.5% and in the bone marrow from 75.5% to 34%. In addition, two subjects had circulating leukemia cells, or blasts, drop to zero. Treatment was well tolerated to date and the maximum tolerated dose has not been reached. Based on the results the trial will continue as planned.
Wilex released positive results from a phase I trial of WX-UK1 for the treatment of solid tumors. This dose escalation study enrolled twenty five subjects who received once weekly infusions of WX-UK1 for three weeks at various fixed doses and daily capecitabine (Xeloda) concomitantly for two weeks. This three-week cycle was repeated until disease progression or toxicity, or for a maximum of fifteen treatment cycles. Treatment was safe and well tolerated, with no increase in adverse events and no reported serious adverse events. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no significant reciprocal drug-drug interactions. WX-UK1 showed dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile over the dose range tested. Preliminary efficacy data revealed prolonged stable disease and partial response in several of the subjects. Based on the results, Wilex plans to continue the development of WX-UK1.
June 3, 2002
Further analysis of phase III trial results indicate that Zamyl was well tolerated but did not achieve a statistically significant overall response in subjects with relapsed or refractory acute myeloid leukemia. With all evaluable subjects analyzed on an intent-to-treat basis, the overall response rate from Zamyl in combination with chemotherapy was 36%, compared to 28% for subjects who received chemotherapy alone. Twenty-nine percent of subjects receiving Zamyl plus chemotherapy achieved a complete response, compared to 23% treated with only chemotherapy. Based on these results, Protein Design Labs does not plan to file a Biologic License Application (BLA) for Zamyl at this time.