Home » Drug Information » New Medical Therapies™
Arthritis and Arthritic Pain
May 13, 2013
Celgene International reported results from a phase III trial of apremilast for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. This multi-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study enrolled over 500 patients with psoriatic arthritis. Subjects received apremilast 20mg or 30mg twice daily, or placebo, for 24 weeks, with a subsequent extension in which all patients are treated with apremilast. Data demonstrated statistical significance was achieved for the primary endpoint of ACR 20 at week 16 for patients receiving apremilast 20mg and 30mg. Patients on apremilast also achieved a statistically significant benefit over placebo in key secondary endpoints: various measures of physical function and signs and symptoms. The drug was well tolerated. The most frequent adverse events were nausea, diarrhea and headache. Based on this data, Celgene expects to file a separate NDA in the U.S. for psoriasis and a combined PsA/psoriasis MAA submission in Europe in the second half of 2013.
February 18, 2013
Ablynx issued results from a phase II trial of ALX-0061 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study enrolled 37 patients with moderately to severely active RA who also were on a stable background of methotrexate. Subjects received ALX-0061 1mg/kg every four weeks (Q4W), 3mg/kg Q4W or 6mg/kg Q8W, or placebo, for 24 weeks. Depending on the patient’s disease status at week 10, the monthly dose was increased (from 1mg/kg to 3mg/kg; or from 3mg/kg to 6mg/kg) or intensified (from 6mg/kg Q8W to 6 mg/kg Q4W). Results showed, of the unmodified ALX-0061 patient population, 50% (1mg/kg), 75% (3mg/kg), and 63% (6mg/kg) achieved DAS28 remission. Furthermore, 50% of the modified ALX-0061 patient population achieved DAS28 remission. ALX-0061 was well-tolerated. There were no clinically relevant neutropenia, clinically significant increases in lipid levels or serious infections. Ablynx is in discussions with potential partners.
January 7, 2013
Novartis published results of a phase III trial of ACZ885 (canakinumab) for the treatment of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA). This four-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Beta-SPECIFIC 1, enrolled 84 patients between ages two and 19 with active SJIA. Subjects received a single subcutaneous dose of 4mg/kg (up to 300mg) ACZ885 or placebo. Data demonstrated 84% of patients treated with ACZ885 experienced at least a 30% improvement in symptoms compared to 10% for placebo after 15 days of treatment, which was sustained after 29 days (p<0.001). Additionally, ACZ885-treated patients were nearly three times less likely to experience a new flare, with 74% of ACZ885-treated patients remaining flare-free, compared to 25% with placebo (p=0.003). The drug was well tolerated. Based on these data, Novartis pursued regulatory submission in the U.S. and Europe.
November 19, 2012
Galapagos released results from a phase IIa trial of GLPG0634 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This four-week, multi-center, multi-arm study enrolled 91 patients with active RA showing an insufficient response to the standard-of-care treatment, methotrexate (MTX). Subjects received GLPG0634 30mg, 75mg, 150mg or 300mg daily or placebo for four weeks. All subjects continued to receive MTX during the study. Results showed GLPG0634 achieved statistically significant improvement in CRP (C-reactive protein), DAS28, HAQ-DI, ACR20 and ACR50 response rates at the 300mg dose. Efficacy endpoints showed a rapid onset and sustained effect until the end of the study. GLPG0634 was well-tolerated. No serious adverse events were reported. Based on these results, Galapagos will move GLPG0634 into global phase IIb trials early next year.
October 1, 2012
MorphoSys released results from a phase Ib/IIa trial of MOR103 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 96 patients with mild to moderate RA. Subjects received MOR103 0.3mg/kg, 1.0mg/kg or 1.5mg/kg, or placebo, weekly for four weeks. Data demonstrated that the best response was achieved in the 1.0mg/kg dose cohort with an ACR20 score of 68% at week four, significantly higher than in the control arm (p<0.0001). Importantly, MOR103 had a fast onset: within two weeks, up to 40% of patients achieved an ACR20 score. Improvement of DAS28 scores was rapid and significant over the treatment period of the study as well. MRI scans revealed a reduction of synovitis, according to the RAMRIS system, at week four. MOR103 was well tolerated. Based on these data, MorphoSys will seek a commercial partner for further development of the program. The company will also submit a late-breaking abstract for a forthcoming conference.
September 24, 2012
Pfizer released preliminary results from a phase III trial of tofacitinib for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This ongoing, two-year, randomized study enrolled methotrexate (MTX-naïve patients with moderate-to-severe active rheumatoid arthritis. Subjects received tofacitinib 5mg or 10mg twice-daily (BID) or MTX. Results showed tofacitinib met its primary endpoint and was found to be superior to MTX. Statistically significant changes were seen in inhibiting structural damage as measured by change from baseline in van der Heijde modified Total Sharp Score (mTSS) and in reducing signs and symptoms of RA as measured by ACR70 response rates, both assessed at six months. Secondary endpoints, including ACR20 and ACR50 responses, DAS-defined remission (DAS28-4(ESR)<2.6), and mean change in HAQ-DI, were statistically significantly greater with tofacitinib versus MTX at all time points. The drug was well tolerated. Tofacitinib is currently under review by several regulatory agencies (the U.S., Europe and Japan). If approved, tofacitinib would be the first RA treatment in a new class of medicines known as JAK inhibitors and the first new oral disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (or DMARD) for RA in more than 10 years.
September 3, 2012
Protalex released results from a phase Ib trial of PRTX-100 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This randomized, multiple-dose, dose-escalation study enrolled 37 patients already being treated with methotrexate. Subjects were divided into four arms and received 0.15μg/kg to 1.50μg/kg PRTX-100 or placebo weekly for four weeks. The primary disease activity response endpoint was the number of patients with a DAS28-CRP <3.2 at week six. Results showed the PRTX-100 patients as a group had more responders than placebo at all times, that responders increased over time during the 16-week study evaluation period and that the maximum tolerated dose was not reached at the highest dose level. Additionally, PRTX-100 did not decrease CRP (C-Reactive Protein) levels, even in those patients whose swollen and tender joint count and global VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) scores had decreased to low levels after treatment. The drug was well tolerated. Based on these data, Protalex is planning a trial of PRTX-100 at doses of 1.50µg/kg and higher in the U.S. and South Africa.
August 27, 2012
Lexicon Pharmaceuticals reported preliminary results from a phase I study of LX2931 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. This randomized, dose-ranging, placebo-controlled study enrolled 10 patients. Subjects received increasing doses over the course of the study, beginning at 50mg once daily (QD) and escalating to 500mg QD, or placebo, for 12 weeks. Seven of eight patients on LX2931 achieved drug trough levels greater than 60ng/ml. Six of the eight LX2931-treated patients experienced a drop from baseline in the DAS28 score of greater than or equal to 1.2, as did both placebo patients. ACR20 and ACR50 responses were achieved at varying frequencies in both LX2931-treated and placebo patients, but two of eight patients dosed with LX2931 achieved an ACR70 response during the course of the study, compared to none on placebo. The drug was well-tolerated at all doses evaluated. Based on these data, Lexicon may pursue evaluation LX2931 at higher doses.
August 13, 2012
Array BioPharma released results from a phase II trial of ARRY-797 for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic knee pain despite the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This randomized, placebo-controlled and active controlled study enrolled 157 patients with osteoarthritis. Subjects were divided (1:1:1) to receive ARRY-797, placebo or oxycodone ER while continuing their use of NSAIDs for four weeks. Data showed a statistically significant reduction in pain compared to placebo, as measured using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscale. Patients receiving ARRY-797 experienced a mean reduction in the WOMAC pain subscale score at day 28 vs. baseline that was 0.8 greater than those receiving placebo (2.4 vs. 1.6; one-sided p=0.0247). ARRY-797 was well tolerated. The most frequent adverse events were dizziness, diarrhea and nausea. Array will begin seeking a partner to maximize the value of ARRY-797.
Protalex reported results from a phase Ib trial of PRTX-100 for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This randomized, multiple-dose, dose-escalation study enrolled 37 patients who were also being treated with methotrexate. Subjects were divided into four dose-escalating cohorts and received PRTX-100 ranging 0.15μg/kg to 1.50μg/kg or placebo once a week for four weeks. Data demonstrated the need for further study of PRTX-100 at doses of 1.50μg/kg and higher. The drug was found to be safe and well tolerated. Protalex will commence a higher dose-escalation study once analysis of this study is complete.
July 2, 2012
Ablynx released results from a phase II trial of ozoralizumab for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. The open-label extension study enrolled 266 patients who had an insufficient response to methotrexate alone and had participated in the company’s previous two phase II studies. Subjects received ozoralizumab by a subcutaneous injection every four weeks (Q4W) for an additional 48 weeks on top of methotrexate. After a washout period of eight to 12 weeks, all subjects received 10mg ozoralizumab Q4W, with subsequent escalating doses dependent upon assessment, to 30mg and then 80mg Q4W. A total of 86% of subjects completed the study: 56% at 80mg, 29% at 30mg and 15% at 10mg. ACR criteria was used to measure improvement in tender or swollen joint counts and improvements in three of five other disease-activity measures, while DAS28 was used to measure the same in 28 pre-defined joints. At the completion of the study, 38% of subjects achieved clinical remission (DAS28<2.6), 32% achieved ACR70, 63% achieved at least ACR50 and 84% achieved at least ACR20. The most common adverse events were infections. Ablynx will continue to study ozoralizumab as a potential competitor to Humira.
June 11, 2012
Novartis released results from a phase III trial of ACZ885 (canakinumab) for the treatment of systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA). This two-part trial consisted of an open-label, single-arm active treatment period followed by a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, event-driven withdrawal design period, enrolling 177 patients between ages two and 20. In part one, subjects received subcutaneous dose of ACZ885 (4mg/kg, up to 300mg) every four weeks. After eight weeks, subjects who had a minimum adapted ACR Pediatric 50 criteria began reducing their steroid use. In part two, subjects who had a minimum adapted ACR Pediatric 30 criteria at the end of part one were randomized to either continue receiving ACZ885, or to receive placebo every four weeks, until 37 flare-events had occurred. The study met its primary endpoint, with 45% of subjects able to reduce their use of steroids within 28 weeks of commencing treatment with ACZ885 (p<0.0001). Furthermore, subjects receiving ACZ885 were nearly three times (0.37 hazard ratio) less likely to suffer a new flare in part two. At the conclusion of the study, 62% of SJIA patients treated with ACZ885 had inactive disease status compared to 32% in placebo. The most common adverse events in both parts of the study were nasopharyngitis, headache and cough. Novartis is also studying ACZ885 in a phase II, open-label, multi-center study in tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptorassociated periodic syndrome.
July 4, 2011
Nuvo Research reported results from a phase II trial of Pennsaid Viscous Solution 2% for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain. The four-week, two-arm, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, parallel, randomized trial enrolled 259 subjects who received either Pennsaid Viscous Solution 2% twice daily or a matching placebo. The primary endpoint was the reduction of pain from baseline to week four, measured on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). The primary endpoint was reached with Pennsaid showing a greater reduction in osteoarthritis pain versus placebo (p≡0.042). The most common adverse event in both groups was application site dryness.
December 10, 2007
Pain Therapeutics and King Pharmaceuticals reported positive results from a phase III trial of Remoxy for the treatment of pain associated with osteoarthritis. This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multi-center study enrolled four hundred and twelve subjects with osteoarthritis of the knee or hip and moderate-to-severe pain. Following a wash-out and dose titration period, the subjects received twice-daily Remoxy (10-80 mg) or matching placebo for a twelve week treatment period. The primary endpoint was defined as mean decrease in pain intensity scores between the Remoxy and placebo groups. Top-line data revealed this endpoint was reached with statistical significance (p<0.01). Secondary endpoints, including Quality of Analgesia and Global Assessment, also reached statistical significance (p<0.01). Based on the results, Pain Therapeutics and King Pharmaceuticals plan to file an NDA with the FDA in the second quarter of 2008.
February 19, 2007
Targeted Genetics released positive interim results from a phase I/II trial of tgAAC94 for the treatment of arthritis. This trial planned to enroll 120 subjects who were randomized into three dose groups to receive a single intra-articular injection of either tgAAC94 or placebo. This was followed by an open-label injection of tgAAC94 after 12 to 30 weeks, depending on when swelling in the target joint met criteria for re-injection. Treatment was safe and well tolerated in both single and repeat intra-articular injections at doses up to 1x10(13) DNase Resistant Particles per milli-liter (DRP/mL) of joint fluid in subjects with and without systemic TNF-alpha antagonists. Data observed from the first 61 subjects revealed a reduction in tenderness and swelling in the affected joint after tgAAC94 injection versus placebo. To date, 39 subjects have received a second injection. Enrollment was expected to be complete in the next few months with full results by the end of 2007.
November 21, 2005
Biogen Idec issued positive results of a phase II trial of Amevive (alefacept) for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis (PA). Amevive is currently approved to treat psoriasis. Trial results indicated that 54% of subjects receiving the drug achieved ACR20 response, vs. 23% of subjects receiving placebo (p<0.001). 17% achieved ACR50 and 7% achieved ACR70 with Amevive, vs. 10% and 2% respectively for placebo. Improvements in tender-joint (31% vs. 18%) and swollen-joint count (46% vs. 34%) were also noted. This randomized, double-blind, placebo- controlled study enrolled 185 PA patients, who received standard therapy with methotrexate plus Amevive (n=123) or placebo (n=62).
Jazz Pharmaceuticals announced positive results of a phase II trial of Xyrem (sodium oxybate) for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Xyrem is currently approved for the treatment of narcolepsy. Results from the study indicated that both the low and high dose regimens of the drug produced significant reductions in composite primary outcome variable (including Pain Visual Analog Scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and Patient Global Impression of Change) compared to placebo: 34.5% in the low dose group (p=0.005) and 27.3% (p=0.048) achieved significant improvement in this measure, vs. 12.5% for placebo. Treatment was generally well tolerated. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study enrolled 188 patients, who received one of two daily doses of Xyrem (4.5g or 6g) or placebo for 8 weeks, taken in two divided doses (first at bedtime, second 2.5 to 4 hours later).
Savient issued positive results of a phase II trial of Puricase (PEG-uricase) for the treatment of refractory gout. This randomized, open label, multicenter, parallel group study enrolled 41 patients, who received one of 4 regimens of the drug (4 mg every 2 weeks, n=7; 8 mg every 2 weeks, n=8; 8 mg every 4 weeks, n=13; 12 mg every 4 weeks, n=13). The drug was shown to reduce plasma urate levels at all trial doses (from 7.56 mg/dL to 4.20; from 9.09 to 1.42; from 9.08 to 2.57; and from 8.47 to 2.60, respectively). The doses also maintained urate levels below 6 mg/dL for 73%, 92% 86% and 84% of the time. There were 5 serious adverse events reported, including gout flare (n=3), hypersensitivity reaction (n=1), and anemia (n=1).
August 1, 2005
Targeted Genetics has issued positive preliminary results of a phase I trial of tgAAC94, for the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Trial data met their primary safety endpoint, producing a positive overall tolerability profile at doses up to 1x10(11) DRP per mL of joint volume. Secondary efficacy measures indicated that the drug produced sustained improvement in disease signs and symptoms at 4 weeks in 9 of the 11 subjects receiving the drug; this improvement was sustained in 7 of the 9 through 8 weeks. Improvements were noted for 2 of the subjects receiving placebo. This ongoing, placebo-controlled trial enrolled 15 subjects across sites in the US and Canada. Subjects received one of 2 doses of the drug (n=11) or placebo (n=4). Treatment is scheduled to continue through 24 weeks.
March 29, 2004
Genentech and XOMA reported preliminary results from a phase II trial investigating Raptiva (efalizumab), a targeted T-cell modulator for the treatment of psoriatic arthritis. Results showed the study did not reach statistical significance at 12 weeks (84 days) for the primary endpoint, ACR 20 response (20% improvement). Data demonstrated that 28% of Raptiva subjects achieved an ACR 20 response compared with 19% receiving placebo. Statistically significant Psoriasis Area and Severity Index results were found among a subgroup of subjects with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. The randomized, placebo-controlled study enrolled 107 subjects with psoriatic arthritis.
March 15, 2004
The University of Hong Kong reported positive results from a trial investigating Lyprinol, a marine lipid extract for the treatment of osteoarthritis. Results showed a greater improvement in the perception of pain as measured by a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). In addition, subjects who took Lyprinol had improved scores in the physical function and psychological status domains from week four. The randomized, placebo-controlled study enrolled 80 subjects with knee OA. Subjects received either Lyprinol or placebo for six months and were allowed paracetamol/acetaminophen rescue treatment during the study. The trial was conducted from 2001-2003 at the Queen Mary Hospital of the University of Hong Kong.
October 20, 2003
Pain Therapeutics reported positive results from a phase II trial investigating Oxytrex, a narcotic painkiller for the treatment of osteoarthritis pain. Results demonstrated that Oxytrex achieved a statistically significant result in reducing pain intensity during the 21-day treatment period against oxycodone, the studies primary endpoint. In addition, data showed that Oxytrex achieved a statistically significant result in both the qualities of analgesia and global assessment compared to the placebo group. Oxytrex was well tolerated with no reports of serious adverse events. The randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study enrolled 350 subjects at 30 sites across the U.S. The study was designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Oxytrex relative to oxycodone and placebo over a three-week treatment period.
March 4, 2003
Medinox reported positive results from a phase I trial investigating MX-1094, a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID) for the treatment of arthritis. Results showed the drug was well tolerated and exhibited the desired pharmacokinetic profile when compared to the alternative treatment naproxen. The randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, dose escalating study enrolled 48 healthy volunteers and was designed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of MX-1094. Medinox plans to conduct additional trials to assess the gastrointestinal safety of the drug.
February 25, 2002
An analysis of placebo-controlled data indicates that European studies of ML-3000 did not meet all of the efficacy endpoints required by the FDA. The European trials, which were conducted by Merckle GmbH, were part of a global development program consisting of both United States and European Union clinical trials. A United States safety and efficacy study is under way and expected to be completed during the next twelve months. If the ongoing trial meets the required efficacy endpoints, additional efficacy studies will be initiated in order to support a potential NDA submission. ML-3000 is being co-developed by Forest Laboratories and Merckle GmbH for the treatment of osteoarthritis.