Last updated on February 2017

Apixaban for Routine Management of Upper Extremity Deep Venous Thrombosis

Brief description of study

This study will assess the safety and effectiveness of a drug called apixaban for the treatment of upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) and clinically important bleeding. Subjects will receive apixaban 10 mg by mouth twice a day for 7 days, followed by 5 mg by mouth twice a day for a duration of 11 weeks. There will be a followup visit at 12 weeks for all participants. A total of 375 are to be enrolled. The study drug has been approved to treat blood clots. The study drug has not been studied uniquely for the treatment of blood clots in the upper extremity however. Because it is unknown whether it is effective to treat blood clots in the upper extremity, the principal investigator cannot guarantee that there will be benefit to study subjects; however, it is hoped that the information obtained from this research study will help treat patients in the future.

Detailed Study Description

Background: Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (UEDVT) constitutes approximately 10% of all DVT. A recent increase in incidence is largely secondary to the increasing use of peripherally inserted central venous catheters. Treatment for UEDVT is derived from evidence for treatment of lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (LEDVT). No evidence exists for the use of a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) for the treatment of UEDVT. Population: Sequential patients identified within the Intermountain Healthcare system and University of Utah Healthcare system with UEDVT defined as the formation of thrombus within the internal jugular, subclavian, axillary, and brachial veins of the arm demonstrated by imaging. Intervention: Apixaban 10 mg PO twice daily for 7 days followed by apixaban 5 mg twice daily for 11 weeks. Comparison: In the primary analysis, the principal investigator will report the rate of clinically overt objective VTE and VTE-related death in comparison to the rate reported upon literature review ("reference value in the literature"). If the confidence interval for this rate excludes the commonly accepted threshold event rate of 4%, the principal investigator will conclude that treatment with apixaban is noninferior, and therefore a clinically valid approach to treat UEDVT. As a secondary analysis the principal investigator will compare the rate of the primary efficacy outcome and primary safety outcome with a historical control of case matched patients with UEDVT ("historical control") treated with therapy conventional (low molecular weight heparin plus warfarin) prior to the approval of DOACs. Sample Size: A sample size of 357 patients who meet eligibility criteria was chosen so that an exact 95% confidence interval would exclude an event rate of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in the observation cohort of 4%. The principal investigator will add 5% for anticipated withdrawal to assure adequate patient enrollment in the case of patient withdrawal and enroll 375 patients. Outcome: 90 day rate of new or recurrent objectively confirmed symptomatic venous thrombosis and VTE-related death. The primary safety outcome is major bleeding and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding.

Clinical Study Identifier: NCT02945280


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Stacey Johnson, MD

Intermountain Medical Center
Murray, UT United States
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Mary J Tinnes

University of Utah
Salt Lake City, UT United States
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